" Targeting cytokine expression in rat primary glial cells by cellular delivery of an NF-κB decoy. " The CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) δ is differently regulated by fibrillar and oligomeric forms of the Alzheimer amyloid-β peptide. " Anchored FRET sensors detect local caspase activation prior to neuronal degeneration. " Molecular Neurodegeneration, 6:35 (2011) *The first two authors made equal contributions. vi vii Abstract Alzheimer " s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among elderly. The disease is characterized by amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, loss of synapses and neurons and chronic neuroinflammation. The significance of neuroinflammatory processes in disease onset and progression has been debated since activated microglia and reactive astrocytes have been attributed both protective and damaging properties. However, patients systematically treated with anti-inflammatory drugs have been shown to develop AD to a lesser extent than average. This indicates an important role of neuroinflammation in AD. This thesis focuses on two inflammatory related transcription factors , nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP). Both NF-κB and C/EBP are known regulators of many pro-inflammatory genes and may during certain circumstances dimerize with each other. In paper I we use a new strategy to inhibit NF-κB DNA binding activity in primary astro-microglial cell cultures treated with Aβ and IL-1β. By coupling the NF-κB decoy to a transport peptide both concentration and incubation time can be shortened in comparison to previous studies. Moreover, using the same in vitro model in paper II and III, we show members of the C/EBP family to be dysregulated during AD mimicking conditions. Additional focus was directed towards C/EBPδ, which was shown to respond differently to oligomeric and fibrillar forms of Aβ. Results were also confirmed in vivo using an AD mouse model characterized by high levels of fibrillar Aβ deposits. Finally, in order to get further insight in neurodegenerative processes, induced by Aβ or microglial activation, we present in paper IV a new set of anchored sensors for detection of locally activated caspases in neuronal cells. By anchoring the sensors to tau they become less dynamic and caspase activation can be detected early on in the apoptotic process, in a spatio-temporal and reproducible manner.