Neurohormonal activation, oxygen free radicals, and apoptosis in the pathogenesis of congestive heart failure.

@article{Ruffolo1998NeurohormonalAO,
  title={Neurohormonal activation, oxygen free radicals, and apoptosis in the pathogenesis of congestive heart failure.},
  author={Robert R. Ruffolo and Giora G Z Feuerstein},
  journal={Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology},
  year={1998},
  volume={32 Suppl 1},
  pages={S22-30}
}
A variety of pathophysiologic processes are activated in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), and some of these have been implicated in the progression of the disease. The most important processes to be activated in CHF are the neurohormonal systems, which include the renin-angiotensin system, the sympathetic nervous system, and the endothelin system. In addition to the neurohormonal systems, the formation of reactive oxygen free radicals is increased in patients with CHF. It has been… CONTINUE READING