Neurofeedback: A Comprehensive Review on System Design, Methodology and Clinical Applications

  title={Neurofeedback: A Comprehensive Review on System Design, Methodology and Clinical Applications},
  author={Hengameh Marzbani and Hamid Reza Marateb and Marjan Mansourian},
  journal={Basic and Clinical Neuroscience},
  pages={143 - 158}
Neurofeedback is a kind of biofeedback, which teaches self-control of brain functions to subjects by measuring brain waves and providing a feedback signal. Neurofeedback usually provides the audio and or video feedback. Positive or negative feedback is produced for desirable or undesirable brain activities, respectively. In this review, we provided clinical and technical information about the following issues: (1) Various neurofeedback treatment protocols i.e. alpha, beta, alpha/theta, delta… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Review of the therapeutic neurofeedback method using electroencephalography: EEG Neurofeedback.
In this review, various types of EEG-NFB training are described, including training of slow cortical potentials and frequency and coherence training, with their main results and potential limitations.
EEG-Neurofeedback as a Tool to Modulate Cognition and Behavior: A Review Tutorial
A review tutorial discussing key aspects relevant to the development of electroencephalography (EEG) neurofeedback studies, based on a protocol and results of a frontal-midline theta up-regulation training for the improvement of executive functions.
Neurofeedback: Principles, appraisal, and outstanding issues
  • D. Papo
  • Psychology
    The European journal of neuroscience
  • 2018
Gauging neurofeedback's potential, as well as assessing and improving its efficacy will require better understanding of various fundamental aspects of brain dynamics and a more precise definition of functional brain activity and brain‐behaviour relationships.
BrainKilter: A Real-Time EEG Analysis Platform for Neurofeedback Design and Training
The BrainKilter platform provides a truly easy-to-use environment for customizing the experimental paradigm and for optimizing the parameters of neurofeedback experiments for research and clinical neurofeed back applications using BCI technology.
Design and Implementation of a Novel Subject-Specific Neurofeedback Evaluation and Treatment System
This work designs, implements and test an all-in-one, novel, computerized platform for closed-loop NF treatment, and enables multiple feature selection and its machine learning capabilities allow an accurate discovery of patient-specific biomarkers and treatment targets.
The Current Evidence Levels for Biofeedback and Neurofeedback Interventions in Treating Depression: A Narrative Review
The current level of evidence for the usage of biofeedback and neurofeedback to treat depression is shown along with a detailed review of the studies in the field and a discussion of rationale for utilizing each protocol.
Infra-Low Frequency Neurofeedback: A Systematic Mixed Studies Review
Introduction Neurofeedback training is increasingly applied as a therapeutic tool in a variety of disorders, with growing scientific and clinical interest in the last two decades. Different
EEG Neurofeedback Training Among Adult with Attention Deficit: A Review Article
Neurofeedback is considered a promising therapy for boosting cognitive skills, which 10% of the US medical sector is using as a new training method among patients. Attention is a significant
Is There Evidence for EEG-Neurofeedback Specificity in the Treatment of Internalizing Disorders? A Protocol for a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
This protocol outlines the research methodology for a quantitative review undertaken to assess for evidence of EEG-NFB specificity in the treatment ofInternalizing disorders with high failure rates and substantial side effects.
Portable wireless neurofeedback system of EEG alpha rhythm enhances memory
It is suggested that the portable neurofeedback system provides an alternative intervention for memory enhancement and trainability of alpha rhythm in terms of significant increase of power and duration of 8–12 Hz.


Designing a brain-computer interface device for neurofeedback using virtual environments
A neurofeedback (NFB) system was established in this study, which utilized virtual reality (VR) to create appropriate feedback information in certain scenarios, and showed that the NFB system could provide an effective therapy for treating children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Annotation: neurofeedback - train your brain to train behaviour.
There is growing evidence for NF as a valuable treatment module in neuropsychiatric disorders and controlled studies are necessary to establish clinical efficacy and effectiveness and to learn more about the mechanisms underlying successful training.
Optimizing microsurgical skills with EEG neurofeedback
SMR-Theta neurofeedback training provided significant improvement in surgical technique whilst considerably reducing time on task by 26%.
Improvement of Neurofeedback Therapy for Improved Attention Through Facilitation of Brain Activity Using Local Sinusoidal Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field Exposure
This study investigated the facilitating effect on the theta-to-beta ratio from NF training, using a local sinusoidal extremely low frequency magnetic field (LSELF-MF) versus traditional NF, and shows the effect of LSELF- MF on NF training.
Auxiliary Neurofeedback System for Diagnostic of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
A neurofeedback system for auxiliary diagnostic of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) stresses ease of use and modification so that different interfaces can be added, and different signal processing procedures can be implemented as required.
Quantitative EEG, Event-Related Potentials and Neurotherapy
Ecological validity of neurofeedback: modulation of slow wave EEG enhances musical performance
Improvements in musical performance in a student group that received training on attention and relaxation related neurofeedback protocols were documented, and improvements were highly correlated with learning to progressively raise theta over alpha band amplitudes.
The potential of neurofeedback in the treatment of eating disorders: a review of the literature.
The studies to date that use neurofeedback involving electroencephalography, real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging or near-infrared spectroscopy, and the potential of these technologies as treatments for eating disorders are described.
Neurofeedback for Children with ADHD: A Comparison of SCP and Theta/Beta Protocols
Both groups were able to intentionally regulate cortical activity and improved in attention and IQ and clinical effects for both groups remained stable six months after treatment.
Integrated real-time neurofeedback system to raise the frontal lobe activity: Design and implementation
An integrated portable and real-time neurofeedback system assisted by EEG has been developed and its performance has been verified by the fMRI experiment and it is expected that this system can be more benefit to individuals and society.