Neuroenhancement Among German University Students: Motives, Expectations, and Relationship with Psychoactive Lifestyle Drugs

@article{Eickenhorst2012NeuroenhancementAG,
  title={Neuroenhancement Among German University Students: Motives, Expectations, and Relationship with Psychoactive Lifestyle Drugs},
  author={Patrick Eickenhorst and Karin Vitzthum and Burghard F. Klapp and David Alexander Groneberg and Stefanie Mache},
  journal={Journal of Psychoactive Drugs},
  year={2012},
  volume={44},
  pages={418 - 427}
}
Abstract Recent research has indicated that neuroenhancement (NE), the use of legal or illegal drugs by healthy individuals to improve their cognitive performance, is widely practiced among students in both the United States and Germany. The primary objective of this study was to identify the motives for and beliefs regarding the benefits and risks of practicing NE among a sample of German university students and graduates. The secondary objective was to determine the relationship between the… Expand

Topics from this paper

To Dope or Not to Dope: Neuroenhancement with Prescription Drugs and Drugs of Abuse among Swiss University Students
TLDR
A significant proportion of Swiss university students across most academic disciplines reported neuroenhancement with prescription drugs and drugs of abuse, however, these substances are rarely used on a daily basis and more sporadically used prior to exams. Expand
Pharmacological neuroenhancement and the ability to recover from stress – a representative cross-sectional survey among the German population
TLDR
The non-medical use of prescription drugs for PNE appears to be more prevalent in subjects who are less resilient to stress, andtailored resilience interventions that improve the ability to adapt to and recover from stressors may prevent theUse of prescription medication for P NE. Expand
Neuroenhancement in French and Romanian University Students, Motivations and Associated Factors
This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the use of neuroenhancers, the motivations and factors associated with their use in French and Romanian university students. Students from twoExpand
Prevalence of and motives for pharmacological neuroenhancement in Switzerland--results from a national Internet panel.
TLDR
Taking prescription or recreational drugs for pharmacological neuroenhancement is rare among Swiss employees and students, and pharmacological mood enhancement is more prevalent than direct pharmacological cognitive enhancement. Expand
Substance use for neuroenhancement or coping with stress : an epidemiological study on university students and clients of a University counseling service in Germany
Introduction Pharmacological neuroenhancement [NE] describes the use of substances to enhance mental performance by healthy individuals. Epidemiological studies showed that especially ca eine wasExpand
Use of cognitive enhancers among medical students in Lithuania
Aims The purpose of this study is to analyse the use of cognitive enhancers among medical students in Lithuania, determine the reasons for usage and evaluate the contributing factors such asExpand
Knowledge, Experiences and Views of German University Students Toward Neuroenhancement: An Empirical-Ethical Analysis
Across normative and empirical disciplines, considerable attention has been devoted to the prevalence and ethics of the non-medical use of prescription and illegal stimulants for neuroenhancementExpand
A survey of substance use for cognitive enhancement by university students in the Netherlands
TLDR
An overview of different methods in order to assess the prevalence of use of prescription, illicit and lifestyle drugs for cognitive enhancement and evidence of polydrug use in relation to cognitive enhancement is found. Expand
(Mis)use of Prescribed Stimulants in the Medical Student Community: Motives and Behaviors
TLDR
The results suggest that restrictions on methylphenidate and modafinil prescriptions are effective at limiting their use, however, these restrictions may explain the observed rates of corticoid consumption, which raise a new public health problem, given that corticoids may have severe side effects. Expand
The Use of Prescription Drugs and Drugs of Abuse for Neuroenhancement in Europe
TLDR
Monitoring the future development of pharmacological neuroenhancement in Europe is important to provide effective preventive measures when required and substance use to cope with stress related to work or education should be studied in depth because it is likely more prevalent and dangerous than direct neuroenhancesment. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 47 REFERENCES
Nonmedical Prescription Stimulant Use Among a Sample of College Students
TLDR
Investigation of use and potential misuse of prescription stimulants among a sample of college students and the relationship between psychological variables and nonmedical stimulants revealed a relationship between stimulant use and degree of psychological distress and internal restlessness. Expand
Illicit use of psychostimulants among college students: A preliminary study
There is little recent research on the illicit use of prescription stimulants such as methylphenidate on college campuses. Given the increasing number of amphetamine prescriptions for attentionExpand
Non-medical use of prescription stimulants and illicit use of stimulants for cognitive enhancement in pupils and students in Germany.
TLDR
The illicit use of stimulants for cognitive enhancement is significantly higher than non-medical use of prescription stimulants among pupils and students in Germany. Expand
Modafinil and methylphenidate for neuroenhancement in healthy individuals: A systematic review.
TLDR
Expectations regarding the effectiveness of methylphenidate and modafinil exceed their actual effects, as has been demonstrated in single- or double-blind randomised controlled trials. Expand
Nonmedical Use of Prescription Stimulants and Analgesics: Associations with Social and Academic Behaviors among College Students
TLDR
Past-year nonmedical use of prescription stimulants and analgesics independently predicted lower college GPA by the end of the first year of college; this effect was partially mediated by skipping more classes. Expand
Over-the-Counter Medication and Herbal or Dietary Supplement Use in College: Dose Frequency and Relationship to Self-Reported Distress
TLDR
Dose frequency of OTC medications was the best predictor of self-reported emotional distress in the past week and higher doses of products containing pseudoephedrine or valerian were associated with self- reported anxiety. Expand
Prevalence and Motives for Illicit Use of Prescription Stimulants in an Undergraduate Student Sample
TLDR
The most prevalent motives given for illicit use of prescription stimulants were to help with concentration, increase alertness, and provide a high, and the authors found no gender differences in motives. Expand
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine for neuroenhancement in healthy individuals: a systematic review.
TLDR
Expectations about the potential of these drugs exceed their actual effects, as has been demonstrated in randomised controlled trials, based on a systematic review of known interventions. Expand
Illicit Use of Prescribed Stimulant Medication Among College Students
TLDR
Regression analysis revealed that the factor that predicted men's use was knowing where to get easily acquired stimulant medication, whereas the main predictor for women was whether another student had offered the prescribed stimulants. Expand
The nonmedical use of prescription stimulants among dental and dental hygiene students.
TLDR
The purpose of this study was to determine the nonmedical use of prescription attention deficit disorder (ADD) stimulant medication among dental and dental hygiene students and to help administrators and faculty members become aware of potential problems with the misuse of ADD stimulants. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...