Cysticercosis is one of the most common parasitic diseases of the nervous system in humans, and constitutes a major public health problem for most of the developing world. The clinical manifestations of neurocysticercosis (NCC) largely depend on the the host immune response against the parasite. NCC diagnosis is based upon neuroimaging studies (computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) and antibody/antigen detection in the serum and the cerebrospinal fluid. Anticysticercal therapy has been marked by an intense controversy. Randomized controlled trials evaluating the clinical benefit of treatment have yield conflicting data with some studies indicating a benefit and others failing to show a difference. Prevention strategies must rely on multiple approaches, tailoring each to the special features of the particular endemic area.