The distribution and morphology of neurocalcin-immunopositive neurons have been studied in the rat accessory olfactory bulb. Different subsets of neurons displaying neurocalcin immunoreactivity were found in the glomerular layer, the external plexiform layer and the internal plexiform layer. The most abundant staining was detected in the glomerular layer where neurocalcin-immunoreactive periglomerular cells and external tufted cells were observed in the lateral glomeruli, whereas the central region of this layer was practically devoid of immunopositive neurons. In the external plexiform layer, medial tufted cells and Van Gehuchten cells displayed neurocalcin immunoreactivity. In the internal plexiform layer, interneurons classified as horizontal cells and vertical cells of Cajal were neurocalcin-immunoreactivity. In the internal plexiform layer, interneurons classified as horizontal cells and vertical cells of Cajal were neurocalcin-immunostained. The staining pattern for neurocalcin in the accessory olfactory bulb showed similarities with the immunostaining described in this brain region for another EF-hand calcium binding protein, calbindin D-28k. However, after double immunohistochemical labeling, colocalization of both proteins in the same neuron was not observed, reflecting a biochemical heterogeneity within morphologically homogeneous neuronal groups.