Neurobiology of Kratom and its main alkaloid mitragynine

@article{Suhaimi2016NeurobiologyOK,
  title={Neurobiology of Kratom and its main alkaloid mitragynine},
  author={Farah Wahida Suhaimi and Nurul H. M. Yusoff and Rahimah Hassan and Sharif Mahsufi Mansor and Visweswaran Navaratnam and Christian P. M{\"u}ller and Zurina Hassan},
  journal={Brain Research Bulletin},
  year={2016},
  volume={126},
  pages={29-40}
}
7-Hydroxymitragynine Is an Active Metabolite of Mitragynine and a Key Mediator of Its Analgesic Effects
TLDR
It is found that mitragynine is converted in vitro in both mouse and human liver preparations to the much more potent mu-opioid receptor agonist 7-hydroxymitagynine and that this conversion is mediated by cytochrome P450 3A isoforms.
DARK Classics in Chemical Neuroscience: Kratom.
TLDR
The traditional and medicinal uses of kratom are reviewed along with the synthesis of its bioactive ingredients, their pharmacology, metabolism, and structure-activity relationships, and the importance in society of this currently controversial substance are discussed.
Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of mitragynine, the principle alkaloid of Mitragyna speciosa: present knowledge and future directions in perspective of pain
Abstract Mitragyna speciosa, commonly known as Ketum or Biak in Malaysia and Kratom in Thailand, is a native plant to Southeast Asia and has various pharmacological benefits. Mitragynine (MG) is the
Fatal Mitragynine-Associated Toxicity in Canada
TLDR
A case of the first reported mitragynine-associated fatality in Canada where an independently fatal mitragysine concentration was detected in the postmortem femoral venous blood and the source drug was likely obtained as a powder from Indonesia.
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References

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From Kratom to mitragynine and its derivatives: Physiological and behavioural effects related to use, abuse, and addiction
Behavioral and neurochemical characterization of kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) extract
TLDR
The results obtained in drug-naïve mice demonstrate weak behavioral effects mediated via μ and λ opioid receptors, indicating that the analgesic effect is mediated via κ opioid receptors.
Abuse potential and adverse cognitive effects of mitragynine (kratom)
TLDR
Findings provide evidence for an addiction potential with cognitive impairments for mitragynine, which suggest its classification as a harmful drug.
Antidepressant-like effect of mitragynine isolated from Mitragyna speciosa
  • Biology
  • 2015
TLDR
It is clearly demonstrated that mitragynine exerts an antidepressant effect in animal behavioral model of depression (FST and TST) and the effect appears to be mediated by an interaction with neuroendocrine HPA axis systems.
Subchronic exposure to mitragynine, the principal alkaloid of Mitragyna speciosa, in rats.
Antinociceptive Action of Isolated Mitragynine from Mitragyna Speciosa through Activation of Opioid Receptor System
TLDR
It is demonstrated that CB1 does not directly have a role in the antinociceptive action of MG where the effect was observed with the activation of opioid receptor.
Antidepressant-like effect of mitragynine isolated from Mitragyna speciosa Korth in mice model of depression.
Effects of mitragynine from Mitragyna speciosa Korth leaves on working memory.
Pharmacology of Kratom: An Emerging Botanical Agent With Stimulant, Analgesic and Opioid-Like Effects
TLDR
Analyses of the medical literature and select Internet sites indicate that individuals in the United States are increasingly using kratom for the self-management of pain and opioid withdrawal.
Pharmacokinetics of mitragynine in man
TLDR
The first pharmacokinetic study in humans, which demonstrated linearity and was consistent with the oral two-compartment model with a terminal half-life of about 1 day, suggests there is a possibility for it to be developed medically as a pain killer or better opioid substitute in the future.
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