Neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells stimulated by acetyl-l-carnitine arginine amide

  title={Neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells stimulated by acetyl-l-carnitine arginine amide},
  author={Giulio Taglialatela and D. Navarra and Alfredo Olivi and Maria Teresa Ramacci and Karin Werrbach‐Perez and Jose Regino Perez-Polo and Luciano Angelucci},
  journal={Neurochemical Research},
Senescence of the central nervous system is characterized by a progressive loss of neurons that can result in physiological and behavioral impairments. Reduction in the levels of central neurotrophic factors or of neurotrophin receptors may be one of the causes of the onset of these degenerative events. Thus, a proper therapeutic approach would be to increase support to degenerating neurons with trophic factors or to stimulate endogenous neurotrophic activity. Here we report that acetyl-l… 

Acetyl-L-Carnitine Arginine Amide Prevents β 25–35-Induced Neurotoxicity in Cerebellar Granule Cells

ST857 pretreatment suggests that, in CGC chronically treated with β 25–35, ST857 could protect the cells by neurotoxic insults of the peptide likely interfering with the cellular mechanisms involved in the control of Ca2+ homeostasis.

Acetyl-L-Carnitine: Biological Properties and Clinical Application (A Review)

This work has shown that carnitine ester, representing an acetylated form of LC, is the most important carnitines found in the tissues of animals and the homeostatic equilibrium between free LC and its derivatives is effectively controlled by various mechanisms.

Characterization of Melittin Effects in Synaptosomes

The interpretation of these results is that the Ca2+-dependent, pharmacologic sensitive component of melittin-induced release of [3H]GABA, unmasked when 0.3 μMMelittin was used, involves the activation of a Ca2-dependent type of membrane PLA2, highly probable to be due to the membrane perturbation produced by complexmelittin/lipid interactions.

Characterization of the type of calcium channel primarily regulating GABA exocytosis from brain nerve endings

It is concluded that the type of Ca2+ channels that primarily determine the exocytosis of GABA belong to a P-like type of calcium channel, similar to L-type Ca2-type channels.

ω-Aga IVA selectively inhibits the calcium-dependent fraction of the evoked release of [3H]GABA from synaptosomes

The results indicate that an ω-Aga IVA sensitive type of Ca2+ channel is highly involved in GABA exocytosis.

Effects of External pH Variations on Brain Presynaptic Sodium and Calcium Channels; Repercussion on the Evoked Release of Amino Acid Neurotransmitters

It is concluded that external H+ regulate amino acid neurotransmitter release by their actions on presynaptic Na+ channels, as well as on Presynaptic Ca2+ channels.

Cognitive enhancers (nootropics). Part 3: drugs interacting with targets other than receptors or enzymes. disease-modifying drugs.

The review covers the evolution of research in this field over the last 25 years and proposes assigning drugs to 19 categories according to their mechanism(s) of action.

Mitochondria and the Evolution of Human Longevity

  • Biology, Medicine
It is found that the authors' mitochondria have evolved over time in a way that has allowed humans to lead longer, healthier lives without the scourge of neurodegenerative disease.



Evidence for RNA synthesis-dependent and -independent pathways in stimulation of neurite outgrowth by nerve growth factor.

  • D. BursteinL. Greene
  • Biology, Chemistry
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1978
Findings suggest that there are both RNA synthesis-dependent and -independent pathways in the mechanism whereby NGF stimulates neurite outgrowth and that NGF-treated PC12 cells undergo a time-dependent loss of the capacity for neurite regeneration after pretreatment with RNA synthesis inhibitors or withdrawal of NGF.

Nerve growth factor binding in aged rat central nervous system: Effect of acetyl‐l‐carnitine

There is a decrrease in the NGF‐binding capacity of the hippocampus and basal forebrain of aged (26‐month‐old) rats as compared to 4‐month-old controls but no change in NGF binding in cerebellum.

Effects of nerve growth factor and acetyl-l-carnitine arginyl amide on the human neuronal line HCN-1A

Nerve growth factor promotes survival of septal cholinergic neurons after fimbrial transections

  • F. Hefti
  • Biology
    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • 1986
It is suggested that fimbrial transections resulted in retrograde degeneration of cholinergic septo-hippocampal neurons and that NGF treatment strongly attenuated this lesion-induced degeneration.

Identification and characterization of a novel member of the nerve growth factor/brain-derived neurotrophic factor family

Taking advantage of sequence identities between NGF and BDNF, a third member of this family of secretory proteins is identified, which is named neurotrophin-3, and a remarkable number of amino acid identities are revealed, including all cys-teine residues.

Molecular cloning and neurotrophic activities of a protein with structural similarities to nerve growth factor: developmental and topographical expression in the brain.

A pool of degenerate oligonucleotides representing all possible codons in regions of homology between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) to prime rat hippocampal cDNAs to represent a family of neurotrophic factors that may cooperate to support the development and maintenance of the vertebrate nervous system.

The nerve growth factor family of receptors

Function and evolution in the NGF family and its receptors

  • T. Ebendal
  • Biology
    Journal of neuroscience research
  • 1992
Cladistic analysis of likely phylogenies within the neurotrophins shows BDNF and NT‐4 to be most closely related whereas NGF may be the sister group to NT‐3, BDNF, andNT‐4.