Neural stimulation and recording electrodes.

  title={Neural stimulation and recording electrodes.},
  author={Stuart F. Cogan},
  journal={Annual review of biomedical engineering},
  • S. Cogan
  • Published 22 July 2008
  • Medicine
  • Annual review of biomedical engineering
Electrical stimulation of nerve tissue and recording of neural electrical activity are the basis of emerging prostheses and treatments for spinal cord injury, stroke, sensory deficits, and neurological disorders. An understanding of the electrochemical mechanisms underlying the behavior of neural stimulation and recording electrodes is important for the development of chronically implanted devices, particularly those employing large numbers of microelectrodes. For stimulation, materials that… 

Stimulation and Recording Electrodes: General Concepts

Electrodes are used for neural stimulation or neural signal recording according to the application, and may lead to a high enough energy transfer triggering chemical reactions that involve corrosion and changes in electrode properties.

Electrodes and instrumentation for neurostimulation

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Electrochemical and electrophysiological performance of platinum THE AUTHORS within a ninety-nine-electrode spiral cuff for selective nerve stimulation and recording of peripheral nerves are reviewed, with a focus on the vagus nerve.

Neural stimulation and recording with bidirectional, soft carbon nanotube fiber microelectrodes.

In vivo chronic studies in parkinsonian rodents show that CNT fiber microelectrodes stimulate neurons as effectively as metal electrodes with 10 times larger surface area, while eliciting a significantly reduced inflammatory response.

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Kilohertz Electrical Stimulation Nerve Conduction Block: Effects of Electrode Material

It is found that thresholds and the onset and recovery of KES nerve block are not a function of the electrode material, and the power dissipation varies among electrode materials and is afunction of the materials’ properties at high frequencies.

Evaluation of micro-electrocorticographic electrodes for electrostimulation

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On the cause and control of residual voltage generated by electrical stimulation of neural tissue

  • Ashwati KrishnanS. Kelly
  • Engineering
    2012 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
  • 2012
This paper theoretically explain one reason for the residual voltage, which is the inclusion of the Faradaic impedance, and suggests a simple dynamic feedback mechanism to eliminate residual voltage.



Electrochemical Considerations for Safe Electrical Stimulation of the Nervous System with Platinum Electrodes

Three conceptually safe methods of injecting charge from a noble metal into tissue: modification of the electrical double layer at the interface and coupling via either of two symmetrical surface-layer oxidation-reduction processes.

Theory and design of capacitor electrodes for chronic stimulation

completely insulated electrodes have been devised which deliver current pulses by capacitive charging of the electrode surface, not involving electrochemical reactions, and should provide a safer interface between neural prosthetic devices and human tissue.

Selective stimulation of cat sciatic nerve using an array of varying-length microelectrodes.

The Utah Slanted Electrode Array was evaluated in acute experiments in cat sciatic nerve and it was concluded that the USEA permits more selective stimulation at much lower current intensities with more graded recruitment of individual muscles than is achieved by conventional cuff electrodes.

Extracellular stimulation of central neurons: influence of stimulus waveform and frequency on neuronal output.

Detailed computer-based models of CNS cells and axons were developed that accurately reproduced the dynamic firing properties of mammalian motoneurons including afterpotential shape, spike-frequency adaptation, and firing frequency as a function of stimulus amplitude to provide a biophysical basis for understanding frequency-dependent outputs during CNS stimulation and provide useful tools for selective stimulation of the CNS.