Neural models of memory

  title={Neural models of memory},
  author={Michael E. Hasselmo and James L. McClelland},
  journal={Current Opinion in Neurobiology},

Figures from this paper

Episodic Memory, Computational Models of

Computational models of episodic memory constitute mechanistically explicit theories of how we recall previously experienced events, and how we recognize stimuli as having been encountered

Adaptive Recall in Hippocampus

A further refinement of CLS is model that features separate handling of inputs from the dorsal and ventral posterior cortices, and a possible mechanism for adaptive recall in hippocampus is presented, suggesting how to recognize familiar objects in unfamiliar settings.

Memory consolidation from seconds to weeks: a three-stage neural network model with autonomous reinstatement dynamics

It is shown that the three-stage model can autonomously produce the necessary stochastic reactivation dynamics for successful episodic memory consolidation and reproduces peculiar biological findings on memory modulation, such as retrograde facilitation of memory after suppressed acquisition of new long-term memories—similar to the effects of benzodiazepines on memory.


The molecular and cellular mechanisms that contribute to short- and long-term memory are extremely conserved across evolution from mollusks to man and among various forms of memory and consist in short-to-long lived rearrangements in synaptic efficiency and in the structure of neuronal networks.

Distinct Neural Circuits for the Formation and Retrieval of Episodic Memories

Synaptic reentry reinforcement based network model for long‐term memory consolidation

It is shown that SRR is capable of strengthening and maintaining memory traces despite inherent variability in the system due to such processes as the turnover of synaptic receptors and their associated signaling and structural proteins.

A unified theory for systems and cellular memory consolidation

Advances in memory research: single-neuron recordings from the human medial temporal lobe aid our understanding of declarative memory

Firing patterns of human medial temporal lobe neurons indicate that cells can be both plastic and stable in terms of the information that they code; although some cells show highly selective and reproducible excitatory responses when presented with a familiar object, other cells change their receptive fields in line with changes in experience and the cognitive environment.



A synaptic model of memory: long-term potentiation in the hippocampus

The best understood form of long-term potentiation is induced by the activation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor complex, which allows electrical events at the postsynaptic membrane to be transduced into chemical signals which, in turn, are thought to activate both pre- and post Synaptic mechanisms to generate a persistent increase in synaptic strength.

Memory consolidation, retrograde amnesia and the hippocampal complex

Hippocampal Two-stage Learning and Memory Consolidation

A neural network model of consolidation focussing on the possible functional roles of theta-and sharp-wave-periods in hippocampal EEG-recordings of rats is presented, showing that the proposed two-stage mechanism requires some form of`cell'-facilitation in the thea-phase.

A Hippocampal Model of Recognition Memory

A model is presented, based largely on known features of hippocampal anatomy and physiology, that accounts for the following key characteristics of recollection: false recollection is rare, increasing interference leads to less recollection but apparently does not compromise the quality of recollection.

Encoding and retrieval of episodic memories: Role of cholinergic and GABAergic modulation in the hippocampus

This research focuses on linking episodic memory function to the cellular physiology of hippocampal neurons, with a particular emphasis on modulatory effects at cholinergic and γ‐aminobutyric acid B receptors, and a network simulation which can replicate the selective encoding impairment produced by scopolamine in human subjects.

Why there are complementary learning systems in the hippocampus and neocortex: insights from the successes and failures of connectionist models of learning and memory.

The account presented here suggests that memories are first stored via synaptic changes in the hippocampal system, that these changes support reinstatement of recent memories in the neocortex, that neocortical synapses change a little on each reinstatement, and that remote memory is based on accumulated neocorticals changes.

Structure and function of declarative and nondeclarative memory systems.

  • L. SquireS. Zola
  • Biology, Psychology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1996
The capacity for nondeclarative (nonconscious) learning can now be studied in a broad array of tasks that assess classification learning, perceptuomotor skill learning, artificial grammar learning, and prototype abstraction.

Conservation of hippocampal memory function in rats and humans

Normal rats demonstrated two forms of flexible memory expression, transitivity, the ability to judge inferentially across stimulus pairs that share a common element, and symmetry, the able to associate paired elements presented in the reverse of training order, indicating that non-spatial declarative processing depends specifically on the hippocampus in animals as it does in humans.