UNLABELLED By using an isolated in situ, cross-perfused pancreas preparation, direct neural effects on the immunoreactive insulin secretion rate (ISR) were separated from blood-borne influences. Blood from a large, anesthetized "support" dog was perfused through the pancreas of a small, anesthetized "pancreas" dog. Both splanchnic nerves of the pancreas dog were cut above the diaphragm and stimulated simultaneously (10 Hz, 0.1-ms pulses, 5-15 mA) for three 10-min periods, twice before and once during a pancreatic arterial phentolamine infusion (10 or 20 mug/min). Splanchnic nerve section caused a transient increase whereas stimulation caused a decrease in ISR. Phentolamine infusion blocked this decrease. In control experiments, an epinephrine infusion (25 or 50 mug/kg per min) was made into the systemic circulation of the pancreas dog instead of the first and second neural stimulations. No decrease in ISR occurred. Later neural stimulation (in the absence of phentolamine) was accompanied by a decrease in the ISR in three of four dogs. CONCLUSIONS the ISR can be inhibited by direct neural imput to the pancreas, and this inhibition is mediated by alpha-adrenergic receptors.