Neural correlates of motor memory consolidation.

  title={Neural correlates of motor memory consolidation.},
  author={Reza Shadmehr and Henry H. Holcomb},
  volume={277 5327},
Computational studies suggest that acquisition of a motor skill involves learning an internal model of the dynamics of the task, which enables the brain to predict and compensate for mechanical behavior. During the hours that follow completion of practice, representation of the internal model gradually changes, becoming less fragile with respect to behavioral interference. Here, functional imaging of the brain demonstrates that within 6 hours after completion of practice, while performance… 
Imaging Brain Plasticity during Motor Skill Learning
Recent findings suggest that the learning of sequential finger movements produces a slowly evolving reorganization within primary motor cortex (M1) over the course of weeks and this change in M1 follows more dynamic, rapid changes in the cerebellum, striatum, and other motor-related cortical areas over the Course of days.
Early consolidation in human primary motor cortex
Low-frequency, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of M1 but not other brain areas specifically disrupted the retention of the behavioural improvement, but did not affect basal motor behaviour, task performance, motor learning by subsequent practice, or recall of the newly acquired motor skill.
Regional brain activation associated with different performance patterns during learning of a complex motor skill.
In understanding the brain's response to extensive practice and development of high-level, expert skill, a key question is whether the same brain structures remain involved throughout the different
Consolidation of motor memory
Preparatory activity in motor cortex reflects learning of local visuomotor skills
A neural mechanism for the locality of newly acquired sensorimotor tasks is suggested and electrophysiological evidence for their retention in working memory is provided.
The Neural Basis of Motor-Skill Learning
An overview of the four processes and two modes supported by motor-skill learning are provided, and their neural bases are described.
Experience-dependent changes in cerebellar contributions to motor sequence learning
Results indicate that intrinsic modulation within the cerebellum, in concert with activation of motor-related cortical regions, serves to set up a procedurally acquired sequence of movements that is then maintained elsewhere in the brain.


Consolidation in human motor memory
It is shown that consolidation of a motor skill was disrupted when a second motor task was learned immediately after the first, indicating that motor memories, which do not depend on the medial temporal lobe, can be transformed by a similar process of consolidation.
Functional Stages in the Formation of Human Long-Term Motor Memory
It is demonstrated that two motor maps may be learned and retained, but only if the training sessions in the tasks are separated by an interval of ∼5 hr, and raised the possibility that there are distinct neuronal mechanisms for representation of the two functional stages of motor memory.
The Mental Representation of Hand Movements After Parietal Cortex Damage
Patients with lesions restricted to the parietal cortex were found to be impaired selectively at predicting, through mental imagery, the time necessary to perform differentiated finger movements and visually guided pointing gestures, in comparison to normal individuals and to a patient with damage to the primary motor area.
Learning-dependent neuronal activity in the premotor cortex: activity during the acquisition of conditional motor associations
  • AR Mitz, M. Godschalk, S. Wise
  • Biology, Psychology
    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • 1991
The present findings support a role for premotor cortex in motor preparation, generally, and suggest a specific role in the selection of movements on the basis of arbitrary associations.
Mnemonic and predictive functions of cortical neurons in a memory task
These findings suggest that neurons from prefrontal and parietal cortex are part of distributed networks, with representational and operational properties, for visuo- motor cognitive processing.
Functional MRI evidence for adult motor cortex plasticity during motor skill learning
A slowly evolving, long-term, experience-dependent reorganization of the adult Ml is suggested, which may underlie the acquisition and retention of the motor skill.
On the specific role of the cerebellum in motor learning and cognition: Clues from PET activation and lesion studies in man
The cerebellar output extends even to what has been characterized as the ultimate frontal planning area, the “prefrontal” cortex, area 46, and the cerebellum may be involved in context-response linkage, and response combination even at these higher levels.
Premotor cortex and conditional motor learning in man.
Patients with PMC lesions were only impaired when they had to recall a movement from memory on the basis of a sensory cue, but not for an association involving spatial location, which indicates that the PMC plays a role in sensory conditional motor learning.
The Cerebellum: A Neuronal Learning Machine?
Comparison of two seemingly quite different behaviors yields a surprisingly consistent picture of the role of the cerebellum in motor learning, and many of the similarities in the data from the two systems typify general features of cerebellar organization.