Neural correlates of category-specific knowledge

  title={Neural correlates of category-specific knowledge},
  author={Alex Martin and Cheri L. Wiggs and Leslie G. Ungerleider and James V. Haxby},
AN intriguing and puzzling consequence of damage to the human brain is selective loss of knowledge about a specific category of objects. One patient may be unable to identify or name living things1–3, whereas another may have selective difficulty identifying man-made objects4–6. To investigate the neural correlates of this remarkable dissociation, we used positron emission tomography to map regions of the normal brain that are associated with naming animals and tools. We found that naming… 

A functional neuroimaging study of the variables that generate category-specific object processing differences.

In the right hemisphere, differences between processing natural relative to man-made objects overlap with the effects of increasing demands on object identification, and in the left hemisphere, the effects are more consistent with functional specialization within the semantic system.

The Neural Basis for Category-Specific Knowledge: An fMRI Study

A neural model of semantic memory is suggested that reflects the processes common to understanding Implements and Abstract nouns and a selective sensitivity, possibly evolving from adaptive pressures, to the overlapping, intercorrelated visual characteristics of Animals.

Category differences in brain activation studies: where do they come from?

  • M. Gorno-Tempini
  • Psychology, Biology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 2000
It is concluded that category–specific brain activations depend more on differential processing at the perceptual and semantic levels rather than at the lexical retrieval level.

Processing Objects at Different Levels of Specificity

Object processing always activated the fusiform gyrus bilaterally, irrespective of the task, whereas the perirhinal cortex was only activated when the task required finer-grained discriminations.

Representation of Manipulable Man-Made Objects in the Dorsal Stream

The left ventral premotor region that responded selectively to tools in the current study may be the human homolog of the monkey canonical F5 area, which responds to the visual presentation of graspable objects.

Experience-dependent modulation of category-related cortical activity.

These findings suggest that category-related activations reflect the retrieval of information about category-specific features and attributes in the ventral occipito-temporal cortex.

Functional Neuroanatomy of the Semantic System: Divisible by What?

Results suggest that, within a distributed conceptual system activated by words, the more prominent neural distinction relates to type of attribute, as a function of attribute type.

Neural substrates of object identification: Functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence that category and visual attribute contribute to semantic knowledge

Investigating the contribution of category (living and nonliving) and visual attribute (global form and local details) to semantic representation in the fusiform gyrus supports distinctions in the role of visual attributes and category in semantic representation.

A role for left temporal pole in the retrieval of words for unique entities

In support of the notion that activity in the left temporal pole is linked to the level of specificity of word retrieval rather than the conceptual class to which the stimulus belongs, normal subjects were asked to name at unique level entities from two conceptual categories: famous landmarks and famous faces.



Discrete Cortical Regions Associated with Knowledge of Color and Knowledge of Action

The areas of the brain that mediate knowledge about objects were investigated by measuring changes in regional cerebral blood flow using positron emission tomography (PET), and data suggest that object knowledge is organized as a distributed system in which the attributes of an object are stored close to the regions of the cortex that mediated perception of those attributes.

Practice-related changes in human brain functional anatomy during nonmotor learning.

Examination of the functional anatomy of the human brain with positron emission tomography during the naive and practiced performance of a simple verbal response selection task indicates that two distinct circuits can be used forverbal response selection and normal subjects can change the brain circuits used during task performance following less than 15 min of practice.

Interaction between vision and language in category-specific semantic impairment

Abstract A category-specific semantic disorder, selectively affecting Living things and food and sparing inanimate objects, was observed in a patient (LA) who had made a partial recovery from herpes

Category specific semantic impairments

A quantitative investigation of the visual identification and auditory comprehension deficits of 4 patients who had made a partial recovery from herpes simplex encephalitis finds category specificity in the organization of meaning systems that are also modality specific semantic systems.

A direct demonstration of functional specialization in human visual cortex

PET is used to demonstrate directly the specialization of function in the normal human visual cortex, and provides direct evidence to show that, just as in the macaque monkey, different areas of the human prestriate visual cortex are specialized for different attributes of vision.

Distribution of cortical neural networks involved in word comprehension and word retrieval.

It is concluded that single word comprehension and retrieval activate very different distributed regions of cerebral cortex, with Wernicke's area the only region engaged by both processes and with participation during silent word generation of networks involved in vocalization.

Mapping motor representations with positron emission tomography

Brain activity was mapped in normal subjects during passive obser-vation of the movements of an 'alien' hand and while imagining grasping objects with their own hand to support the notion that motor learning during observation of movements and mental practice involves rehearsal of neural pathways related to cognitive stages of motor control.

The neural basis of mental imagery

  • M. Farah
  • Psychology, Biology
    Trends in Neurosciences
  • 1989

Novelty encoding networks in the human brain: positron emission tomography data.

Insular, opercular and temporal regions (e.g. area 37) showed novelty activations not only for visual pictures but also for auditorily presented sentences, and can be thought of as components of a transmodal novelty encoding network.

A verbal-semantic category-specific recognition impairment

Abstract The paper reports a patient with a category-specific recognition deficit following herpes simplex encephalitis infection. The patient, SB, has greater difficulty identifying animals and