Neural Representations of Visual Words and Objects: A Functional MRI Study on the Modularity of Reading and Object Processing

  title={Neural Representations of Visual Words and Objects: A Functional MRI Study on the Modularity of Reading and Object Processing},
  author={Ron Borowsky and Carrie Esopenko and Jacqueline Cummine and Gordon E. Sarty},
  journal={Brain Topography},
There have been several studies supporting the notion of a ventral-dorsal distinction in the primate cortex for visual object processing, whereby the ventral stream specializes in object identification, and the dorsal stream is engaged during object localization and interaction. There is also a growing body of evidence supporting a ventral stream that specializes in lexical (i.e., whole-word) reading, and a dorsal stream that is engaged during sub-lexical reading (i.e., phonetic decoding). Here… 
Interactions of reading and semantics along the ventral visual processing stream
ABSTRACT Converging evidence supports a distributed-plus-hub view of semantic processing, in which there are distributed modular semantic sub-systems (e.g., for shape, colour, and action) connected
Functionally distinct contributions of the anterior and posterior putamen during sublexical and lexical reading
It is shown that both the anterior and posterior putamen are involved in articulating speech with greater activation during overt speech production tasks (reading, repetition, object naming, and color naming) than silent one-back-matching on the same stimuli.
Localisation of function for noun and verb reading: Converging evidence for shared processing from fMRI activation and reaction time
Some researchers have argued in favour of verbs primarily activating the left frontal operculum (FO) in the dorsal stream, and left middle temporal (MT) region in the ventral stream, and that nouns
A commonly used behavioural paradigm for examining semantic processing is the semantic priming paradigm, which demonstrates that the reading of a prime word facilitates the read of a related target word, supporting the theory that word representations connected via semantic memory spread activation to one another.
Considering unique, shared, and dominant brain activation in the Visual Word Form Area and Lateral Occipital Cortex: A comparison of separate and combined word reading and picture naming
Results highlight the importance of including exception words to force lexical reading when comparing to picture naming, and the significant shared activation in VWFA and LOC serves to challenge specialized models of reading or picture naming.


FMRI of Ventral and Dorsal Processing Streams in Basic Reading Processes: Insular Sensitivity to Phonology
The present study supports the notion of independent ventral-lexical and dorsal-sublexical streams, and suggests the insular cortex to be sensitive to phonological processing (particularly sublexical spelling-sound translation) and the nature of insular activity during reading is illuminated.
Representation of Manipulable Man-Made Objects in the Dorsal Stream
The left ventral premotor region that responded selectively to tools in the current study may be the human homolog of the monkey canonical F5 area, which responds to the visual presentation of graspable objects.
Modularity and Intersection of “What”, “Where” and “How” Processing of Visual Stimuli: A New Method of fMRI Localization
Two types of functional imaging maps are presented that directly show modularity and intersection of processing function for word and picture stimuli in tasks that require decisions about “what is”, “where is’, or “how do you interact with” a stimulus.
Neural correlates of category-specific knowledge
It is found that naming pictures of animals and tools was associated with bilateral activation of the ventral temporal lobes and Broca's area, and the brain regions active during object identification are dependent, in part, on the intrinsic properties of the object presented.
Functional anatomy of a common semantic system for words and pictures
This study studied the functional anatomy of semantic processing by using positron-emission tomography to contrast activity during two semantic tasks (probing knowledge of associations between concepts, and knowledge of the visual attributes of these concepts), performed either with words or with pictures.
Functional Neuroimaging of Visual Recognition
This work presents a framework for the investigation of directed cortical interactions: theoretical background and application to dynamic sensorimotor mapping, and investigates the functional organization of the ventral visual pathway.
Listening to Action-related Sentences Activates Fronto-parietal Motor Circuits
The results showed that listening to action-related sentences activates a left fronto-parieto-temporal network that includes the pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area), as well as the inferior parietal lobule, the intraparietal sulcus, and the posterior middle temporal gyrus.
Handbook of functional neuroimaging of cognition
This essential resource on neuroimaging provides an accessible and user-friendly introduction to the field written by leading researchers, and is ideal for classroom use in advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in cognitive neuroscience.
The Role of the Left Hemisphere in Motor Control of Touch: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Analysis
A contralateral advantage in the motor cortex of both hemispheres is found in a majority of participants (14/16) when consistently activated BOLD volumes were examined, which suggests that verbally mediated sequencing of finger movements can account for the less frequent result.