Neural Dynamics of Rejection Sensitivity

  title={Neural Dynamics of Rejection Sensitivity},
  author={Ethan Kross and Tobias Egner and Kevin N. Ochsner and Joy Hirsch and Geraldine Downey},
  journal={Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience},
Rejection sensitivity (RS) is the tendency to anxiously expect, readily perceive, and intensely react to rejection. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore whether individual differences in RS are mediated by differential recruitment of brain regions involved in emotional appraisal and/or cognitive control. High and low RS participants were scanned while viewing either representational paintings depicting themes of rejection and acceptance or nonrepresentational control… 

Neural processing of social rejection: The role of schizotypal personality traits

The finding of dACC‐dorso‐ventral PFC activation in LS, but deactivation in HS individuals when perceiving social rejection scenes suggests that HS individuals attach less salience to and distance themselves from such stimuli, which may enable them to cope with their higher‐than‐normal sensitivity to rejection.

Perceiving rejection by others: Relationship between rejection sensitivity and the spontaneous neuronal activity of the brain

Findings suggest that the spontaneous neuronal activity of sgACC and its functional connectivity with the lateral prefrontal cortex which are involved in experiencing social exclusion and regulating negative emotions are associated with individual differences in RS.

Are You Being Rejected or Excluded? Insights from Neuroimaging Studies Using Different Rejection Paradigms

  • P. Premkumar
  • Psychology, Biology
    Clinical psychopharmacology and neuroscience : the official scientific journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
  • 2012
Presenting rejection cues as scenes of people in social interaction showed high rejection sensitive or schizotypal individuals to under-activate the dorsal ACC and VLPFC, suggesting that such individuals who perceive rejection cues in others down-regulate their response to the perceived rejection by distancing themselves from the scene.

The Cognitive and Neuroscience Mechanism of Rejection Sensitivity

The rejection sensitivity under intrapersonal processes was viewed from social cognitive and neurocognitive perspective in a micro level, which focused on individual differences in the responses to social rejection.

Individual differences in neural responses to social rejection: the joint effect of self-esteem and attentional control.

This fMRI study hypothesized and found that while looking at scenes of social rejection, low self-esteem high attentional control individuals engaged the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), an area of the brain associated with emotional control, more than their lowSelf-esteem low Attentional control peers.

Trait rejection sensitivity is associated with vigilance and defensive response rather than detection of social rejection cues

The findings imply that sensitivity to rejection is apparently distinct from the ability to detect social rejection cues and instead reflects intense vigilance and defensive response to those cues.

Attenuating reactivity among low self-esteem individuals: The role of attentional-control

Securing social acceptance and avoiding social rejection are basic human needs. When faced with rejection, individuals low in self-esteem show elevated defensive psychological reactions. However, an

Regional gray matter volume is associated with rejection sensitivity: A voxel-based morphometry study

Investigation of the relationship between gray matter volume and RS in a large healthy sample of 150 men and 188 women suggested a relationship between individual differences in RS and GMV in brain regions that are primarily related to social cognition.



Individual differences in trait rumination and the neural systems supporting cognitive reappraisal

Whether patterns of brain activation during reappraisal vary in relation to individual differences in trait rumination is examined to clarify relations between rumination and emotion regulation processes and may have important implications for mood and anxiety disorders.

Rejection Sensitivity and the Defensive Motivational System: Insights From the Startle Response to Rejection Cues

Investigation of startle probe paradigm results provide evidence that for people high in RS, rejection cues automatically activate the defensive motivational system, but acceptance cues do not automatically activated the appetitive motivational system.

Neural correlates of regulating negative emotions related to moral violations

Neural correlates of individual differences in pain-related fear and anxiety

Neural Correlates of Conscious Self-Regulation of Emotion

Findings reinforce the view that emotional self-regulation is normally implemented by a neural circuit comprising various prefrontal regions and subcortical limbic structures and suggest that humans have the capacity to influence the electrochemical dynamics of their brains, by voluntarily changing the nature of the mind processes unfolding in the psychological space.

Neural circuitry underlying voluntary suppression of sadness

Does Rejection Hurt? An fMRI Study of Social Exclusion

A neuroimaging study examined the neural correlates of social exclusion and tested the hypothesis that the brain bases of social pain are similar to those of physical pain, suggesting that RVPFC regulates the distress of socialclusion by disrupting ACC activity.

Rethinking Feelings: An fMRI Study of the Cognitive Regulation of Emotion

Functional magnetic resonance imaging findings support the hypothesis that prefrontal cortex is involved in constructing reappraisal strategies that can modulate activity in multiple emotion-processing systems.