Network motifs: simple building blocks of complex networks.

@article{Milo2002NetworkMS,
  title={Network motifs: simple building blocks of complex networks.},
  author={Ron Milo and Shai S. Shen-Orr and Shalev Itzkovitz and Nadav Kashtan and Dmitri B. Chklovskii and Uri Alon},
  journal={Science},
  year={2002},
  volume={298 5594},
  pages={
          824-7
        }
}
Complex networks are studied across many fields of science. [] Key Result We found such motifs in networks from biochemistry, neurobiology, ecology, and engineering. The motifs shared by ecological food webs were distinct from the motifs shared by the genetic networks of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae or from those found in the World Wide Web.
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Using computer simulation, it is demonstrated that a higher-than-expected modularity can arise during network growth through a simple model of gene duplication, without natural selection for modularity.
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The method from Milo et al. 2002 is modified and improved to detect significantly enriched motifs in both directed and undirected networks and reveals the nature of distinct types of networks.
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