Net transfer of carbon between ectomycorrhizal tree species in the field

  title={Net transfer of carbon between ectomycorrhizal tree species in the field},
  author={Suzanne W. Simard and David A. Perry and Melanie D. Jones and David D. Myrold and Daniel M. Durall and Randy Molina},
Different plant species can be compatible with the same species of mycorrhizal fungi, and be connected to one another by a common mycelium,. Transfer of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus, through interconnecting mycelia has been measured frequently in laboratory experiments, but it is not known whether transfer is bidirectional, whether there is a net gain by one plant over its connected partner, or whether transfer affects plant performance in the field,. Laboratory studies using isotope… 
Asymmetric belowground carbon transfer in a diverse tree community
Mycorrhizal fungi can colonize multiple trees of a single or multiple taxa, facilitating bidirectional exchange of carbon between trees. Mycorrhiza‐induced carbon transfer was shown in the forest,
The magnitude and control of carbon transfer between plants linked by a common mycorrhizal network
The view, transfer via a common mycorrhizal network (CMN), is that the evidence for this remains equi- paper itself, and that theEvidence for this remained equivocally important, however, there are difficulties Key words: Arbuscular myCorrhiza, carbon, common in quantifying the amounts of resource transferred via mycor Rhizal Network, ectomycorrhiza.
Resource transfer between plants through ectomycorrhizal fungal networks
Carbon (C), nutrients and water (H2O) have been known for five decades to flow between plants through ectomycorrhizal (EM) networks. This flux has the potential to affect plant and fungal performance
Ectomycorrhizal fungi mediate belowground carbon transfer between pines and oaks.
It is demonstrated at a high temporal, quantitative, and taxonomic resolution, that C from EMF host trees moved into EMF and that C was transferred further to neighboring trees of similar and distinct phylogenies.
Water transfer via ectomycorrhizal fungal hyphae to conifer seedlings
Differences were detected in the water transfer patterns indicated by the deuterium and fluorescent dye tracers, suggesting that the two labels are transported by different mechanisms in the same hyphae and/or that different fungal taxa transfer them via different routes to host plants.
Absence of carbon transfer between Medicago truncatula plants linked by a mycorrhizal network, demonstrated in an experimental microcosm.
It is concluded that carbon was transferred from the donor to the receiver plant via the AM fungal network, but that the transferred carbon remained within the intraradical AMfungal structures of the receiver's root and was not transferred to the receivers' plant tissues.
Mycorrhizas transfer carbon in a mature mixed forest
It is shown that closely related trees shared relatively more mycorrhizal fungi than distantly related trees in the same experimental site, which correlated to increased carbon sharing.
Share the wealth: trees with greater ectomycorrhizal species overlap share more carbon.
Belowground carbon transfer is well orchestrated by the evolution of EMFs and tree symbiosis, and phylogenetically more closely related tree species exhibited more similar EMF communities and exchanged more carbon.
Epiparasitic plants specialized on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
It is shown that non-photosynthetic plants associate with AMF and can display the characteristic specificity of epiparasites, which suggests that AMF mediate significant inter-plant carbon transfer in nature.
Nitrogen Transfer Within and Between Plants Through Common Mycorrhizal Networks (CMNs)
Two-way N-transfer warrants further investigation with many species and under field conditions, and the lack of convincing data underlines the need for creative, careful experimental manipulations.


Direct transfer of carbon between plants connected by vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizal mycelium
It is shown using autoradiography that transfer of carbon between plants connected by VA mycorrhizal mycelium occurs primarily by the direct hyphal pathway and the magnitude of the transfer is strongly influenced by shading of ‘receiver’ plants indicating that movement is governed by source–sink relationships.
It is increasingly evident that in natural plant communities the vegetative mycelia of ectomycorrhizal fungi can form networks of hyphal interconnections which link the root systems of their host
The structure and function of the vegetative mycelium of ectomycorrhizal plants
The amount of label accumulated by each plant was significantly related both to the size of the plant shoot and to the number of mycorrhizal root tips but did not appear to be influenced by the transpiration rates of individual plants.
Ectomycorrhizal mediation of competition between coniferous tree species.
Results indicate that EMF can reduce competition between plant species and perhaps increase overall community P uptake, but patterns were specific to both EMF and tree species and were quite different in unpasteurized soils, Hence generalizations about the effects of EMF on plant-plant interactions must be made cautiously.
Nutrient transfer between the root zones of soybean and maize plants connected by a common mycorrhizal mycelium
The patterns of N and P distribution, as well as those of the other essential elements, indicated that association with the N-fertilized soybean plants was more advantageous to maize than was association withThe N2-fixing ones.
Mycorrhizal Links Between Plants: Their Functioning and Ecological Significance
Effect of Clipping, Benomyl, and Genet on 14 C Transfer between Mycorrhizal Plants
This study suggests that grazed mycorrhizal plants are unlikely to gain significant amounts of carbohydrates from neighbors and may actually experience a net loss.
Rates of phosphorus transfer within and between ryegrass (Lolium perenne) plants
An experiment to compare rates of transfer of 32 P between tillers within grass plants and between non-mycorrhizal plants, using mycorrhizaal and non-MycorrhIZal plants is described.
Biology of the ectomycorrhizal genus, Rhizopogon
Although the host-specificity of many species, based on field observations of sporocarps, often correlated with their host range in the syntheses, some fungi formed well-developed ectomycorrhiza on hosts with which they appear to be associated in the field.