Nestling immunocompetence and testosterone covary with brood size in a songbird.

  title={Nestling immunocompetence and testosterone covary with brood size in a songbird.},
  author={Marc Naguib and Katharina Riebel and Alfonso Marzal and D. Ruano Gil},
  journal={Proceedings. Biological sciences},
  volume={271 1541},
The social and ecological conditions that individuals experience during early development have marked effects on their developmental trajectory. In songbirds, brood size is a key environmental factor affecting development, and experimental increases in brood size have been shown to have negative effects on growth, condition and fitness. Possible causes of decreased growth in chicks from enlarged broods are nutritional stress, crowding and increased social competition, i.e. environmental factors… CONTINUE READING
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