Nerve Agents

  title={Nerve Agents},
  author={J. Newmark},
  journal={The Neurologist},
Background:Nerve agents, the deadliest of the classic chemical warfare agents, primarily function as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and cause a rapidly progressive cholinergic crisis. Originally developed for battlefield use, they have been used in terrorist attacks and are considered threats to the civilian population. Review Summary:The pathophysiology and clinical presentation of acute nerve agent poisoning are summarized and acute treatment protocols reviewed. Timely support and antidotal… Expand
4 Citations
Recent advances in heterogeneous catalytic system containing metal ions for phosphate ester hydrolysis.
Heterogeneous systems are described and the importance of the development of heterogeneous catalysts applicable to organophosphate hydrolysis is highlighted, shedding light into recent advances related to the different solid matrices that have been employed. Expand
Organophosphorous phenyl phosphates: Synthesis, dye/protein interactions and antimicrobial evaluation
Abstract A series of Phenyl Phosphates (PPs) has been synthesized and characterized with FTIR spectroscopy. PPs, the product of the reaction of phenol and phosphoryl chloride followed by hydrolysisExpand
Cu-BTC functional microdevices as smart tools for capture and preconcentration of nerve agents.
The potentialities of Cu-BTC micropreconcentrators as smart first responder tools for "on field" detection of nerve agents in gas phase at relevant conditions are demonstrated. Expand


Nerve agent attacks on children: diagnosis and management.
The pathophysiology and management of NA poisoning of children is reviewed, and midazolam may be the most effective intramuscular anticonvulsant after NA exposure, but, despite its efficacy, it is not an approved agent for seizures. Expand
Nerve agents.
Nerve agents cause a rapidly fatal cholinergic crisis, but rapid, appropriate antidotal treatment saves lives. Survivors of nerve-agent poisoning generally are healthy, unlike survivors of some otherExpand
Nerve Agent Bioscavengers: Protection With Reduced Behavioral Effects
Although treatments for intoxication by organophosphorus nerve agents exist, the treatment regimens suffer from undesirable side effects. To overcome these disadvantages, the use of bioscavengers hasExpand
Performance Impacts of Nerve Agents and Their Pharmacological Countermeasures
Nerve agents are some of the most toxic compounds known to man and, as suggested by their name, have pronounced effects on central and peripheral nervous system function. In addition, several of theExpand
Pediatric Nerve Agent Poisoning: Medical and Operational Considerations for Emergency Medical Services in a Large American City
A pediatric nerve agent antidote dosing schedule is developed that is comparable to those being administered to adults with severe symptoms and within limits deemed tolerable after inadvertent nerve agent overdose in children. Expand
Nerve agents
The key to treatment of nerve agent poisoning is the administration of atropine in doses larger than is customary in most other disorders, repeated as often as needed. Expand
Control of nerve agent-induced seizures is critical for neuroprotection and survival.
Seizure control was strongly associated with protection against acute lethality and brain pathology, and midazolam was more rapid in controlling seizure than atropine, trihexyphenidyl, or diazepam against each agent. Expand
Estimation of oxime efficacy in nerve agent poisoning: a kinetic approach.
Different theoretical models were used for the evaluation of reactivating efficacy of oximes with nerve agent-inhibited human AChE and for estimating effective oxime concentrations, demonstrating the marked differences between oximes in dependence of the inhibitor and provide a basis for the estimation of the required oxime dose. Expand
The birth of nerve agent warfare
The author reviewed Farsi-language articles published recently by Dr. Syed Abbas Foroutan, which constitute the only firsthand clinical descriptions of battlefield nerve agent casualties in the worldExpand
The manifestations and treatment of poisoning due to nerve gas and other organic phosphate anticholinesterase compounds.
  • D. Grob
  • Medicine
  • A.M.A. archives of internal medicine
  • 1956
A number of related but somewhat less toxic organic phosphate anticholinesterase compounds have proved to be useful in medicine and in agriculture and have been employed as a therapeutic agent in the management of abdominal distention, urinary retention, and glaucoma. Expand