Intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL) (d = 1.006 to 1.019 g/ml) and low density lipoproteins (LDL) (d = 1.019 to 1.063 g/ml) were isolated from human umbilical cord blood plasma by sequential ultracentrifugation. The concentration, chemical and apolipoprotein composition, size and size distribution of the neonatal IDL and LDL for both sexes were determined. The IDL and LDL from the neonates showed no sex-related differences in composition or concentration. The IDL and LDL were lower in concentration and differed in composition of concentration. The IDL and LDL were lower in concentration and differed in composition with regard to each other and with regard to the comparable adult fractions. The apolipoprotein (apo) composition showed only the high molecular weight form of apo B present in the IDL, while the LDL showed the presence of two lower molecular weight forms of apo B in addition to the high molecular weight form, along with appreciable amounts of apo E and apo A-l. The size distribution of the neonatal IDL and LDL showed a constant pattern, with peaks at approximately 300 A for IDL and 257 and 244 A for neonatal LDL. The alterations in composition, size and size distribution, as well as the lower concentrations present in neonate, point to differences between the neonate and the adult in the metabolism of lipoproteins with a density of 1.006 to 1.063 g/ml.