OBJECTIVE To improve neonatal outcome using ultrathin fetoscope for laser treatment of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. METHODS Retrospective cohort study of a series of 80 cases of twin-to-twin-transfusion syndrome prior to 26-weeks' gestation subjected to laser coagulation by means of a 1.0/1.2 mm fiber fetoscope with a sheath sectional area 2.65 mm(2)/3.34 mm(2) (n=27) and a 2.0 mm classic lens fetoscope with a sheath sectional area: 6.63 mm(2)/11.27 mm(2) (n=53). RESULTS The survival rates of at least one twin in the compared groups were 94.4% (classic optic) and 100% (ultrathin optic), for both twins: 75.5% and 83.3%, respectively. By decreasing sheath diameter a pregnancy was prolonged by an average of 21.3 days (P=0.0045), with a resulting increase in the recipient's weight of 389 g (P=0.0049) and an increase in the donor's Apgar score. However, the intervention with ultrathin optic took 11 min longer (P=0.031). CONCLUSION The reduction of the iatrogenic damage of the amniotic membrane using ultrathin fetoscope with a small sheath, significantly improves the neonatal outcome after laser treatment of twin-to-twin-transfusion syndrome. The operator should only commence working with the 1 mm fetoscope after the learning curve has been accomplished.