Retinopathy of prematurity: inflammation, choroidal degeneration, and novel promising therapeutic strategies
OBJECTIVE To explore whether early or late and presumed or definite neonatal bacteremia are associated with an increased risk of severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). METHODS We evaluated 1059 infants born before week 28 of gestation for ROP. Infants were classified as having early (postnatal week 1) or late (weeks 2-4) definite (culture-proven) or presumed (antibiotics taken for >72 hours despite negative blood culture results) bacteremia. Severe ROP was defined as stage 3 to 5, zone 1, prethreshold/threshold, or plus disease. We used time-oriented risk models to adjust for confounders. RESULTS In univariable, but not multivariable, analysis, newborns with presumed early bacteremia were at increased risk for plus disease (odds ratio [OR], 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.7), and those with definite early bacteremia were at increased risk for stage 3 to 5 disease (1.9; 1.1-3.2). Infants who had presumed or definite late bacteremia were at increased risk for all 4 indicators of severe ROP in univariable analysis. In multivariable analysis, newborns with presumed late bacteremia were at increased risk for prethreshold/threshold ROP (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.02-3.2), and those with definite late bacteremia were at increased risk for prethreshold/threshold ROP (1.8; 1.1-2.9) and plus disease (1.8; 1.05-2.9). CONCLUSIONS Definite late neonatal bacteremia seems to be an independent risk factor for prethreshold/threshold ROP and plus disease, and presumed late bacteremia seems to be related to prethreshold/threshold ROP.