Small metallic nanoparticles of neodymium are obtained by a facile route based on the biosynthesis and the pH conditions that demonstrate the possibility of obtaining particles of 1-8 nm. The size is controlled by synthesis conditions. Smaller clusters were obtained with pH = 5, while for pH = 10 evidences of nanorods productions are found and this opens the perspective to use this rare-earth element for zero and one dimensional based applications. Using transmission electron microscopy techniques, the size distribution and structure are studied. Density functional theory-based calculations allow the determination of the lowest energy configuration, which is based on the hexagonal bulk symmetry. Theoretical models are used to simulate the high resolution transmission electron microscopy to identify the experimental image, determining that the synthesized nanoparticles reach the lowest energy hexagonal configurations.