Nematoda from the terrestrial deep subsurface of South Africa

  title={Nematoda from the terrestrial deep subsurface of South Africa},
  author={G Borgonie and Antonio Garc{\'i}a-Moyano and Derek Litthauer and Wim Bert and Armand Bester and Esta van Heerden and Christelle M{\"o}ller and Mariana Erasmus and Tullis C. Onstott},
Since its discovery over two decades ago, the deep subsurface biosphere has been considered to be the realm of single-cell organisms, extending over three kilometres into the Earth’s crust and comprising a significant fraction of the global biosphere. The constraints of temperature, energy, dioxygen and space seemed to preclude the possibility of more-complex, multicellular organisms from surviving at these depths. Here we report species of the phylum Nematoda that have been detected in or… 
Eukaryotic opportunists dominate the deep-subsurface biosphere in South Africa
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    BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology
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It is concluded that the fossil record of Earth's largest microbial habitat may still have much to tell us about the history of life, the evolution of biogeochemical cycles, and the search for life on Mars.
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The number and diversity of microorganisms decrease with depth, and the abundance of Bacteria is superior to Archaea, and methanogens are recurrently detected in most analyzed subsurface samples.
From Genes to Metagenomes: Exploring life underground
A picture of how microbial communities function in the terrestrial subsurface is provided as well as a theoretical framework for understanding the selective pressures these organisms face.
Microbial Diversity in Deep-Subsurface Hot Brines of Northwest Poland: from Community Structure to Isolate Characteristics
This study shows that low-diversity microbial assemblages in subsurface hot brines were dominated by the bacteria involved in biogeochemical cycles of sulfur and nitrogen, and indicates that some lineages of B. paralicheniformis are halothermophilic, which was not previously reported.
Microsporidia-nematode associations in methane seeps reveal basal fungal parasitism in the deep sea
It is revealed that methane seeps support complex ecosystems involving interkingdom interactions between bacteria, nematodes, and parasitic fungi and that microsporidia parasitism exists also in the deep-sea biosphere.
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  • T. Kieft
  • Geology, Environmental Science
  • 2016
Subsurface microbial communities in sediment and fractured rock environments beneath continental surface environments and beneath the ocean floor comprise a significant but largely unexplored portion
New ecosystems in the deep subsurface follow the flow of water driven by geological activity
The results show there is a steady flow of surface organisms to the deep subsurface where some survive and adapt and others perish and the mechanism elucidated here may be relevant for future search and selection of landing sites in planetary exploration.
A global perspective on microbial diversity in the terrestrial deep subsurface
The diversity of bacterial communities in deep subsurface groundwater is shown to be controlled by aquifer lithology globally, by using 16S rRNA gene datasets collected across five countries on two continents and from fifteen rock types over the past decade.
Detection of the deep biosphere in metamorphic rocks from the Chinese continental scientific drilling
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The first metazoa living in permanently anoxic conditions
This is the first evidence of a metazoan life cycle that is spent entirely in permanently anoxic sediments, and it is concluded that these metazoans live under anoxic conditions through an obligate anaerobic metabolism that is similar to that demonstrated so far only for unicellular eukaryotes.
Characterisation of Yeasts Isolated from Deep Igneous Rock Aquifers of the Fennoscandian Shield
Five yeast, three yeastlike, and 17 mold strains were isolated from Äspö HRL groundwater to determine whether they were adapted to life in the deep biosphere, and grew within a pH range of 4–10, between temperatures of 4°C and 25–30°C, and in NaCl concentrations from 0 to 70 g L−1, suggesting a degree of adaptation to the groundwater at €HRL.
Desulfotomaculum and Methanobacterium spp. Dominate a 4- to 5-Kilometer-Deep Fault
ABSTRACT Alkaline, sulfidic, 54 to 60°C, 4 to 53 million-year-old meteoric water emanating from a borehole intersecting quartzite-hosted fractures >3.3 km beneath the surface supported a microbial
The Origin and Age of Biogeochemical Trends in Deep Fracture Water of the Witwatersrand Basin, South Africa
Water residing within crustal fractures encountered during mining at depths greater than 500 meters in the Witwatersrand basin of South Africa represents a mixture of paleo-meteoric water and 2.0–2.3
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Phylum-wide analysis of SSU rDNA reveals deep phylogenetic relationships among nematodes and accelerated evolution toward crown Clades.
The exclusive common presence of fungivorous and plant parasitic nematodes supports a long-standing hypothesis that states that plant parasitic Nematodes arose from fungivory ancestors.
Anaerobiosis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.
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  • Environmental Science
    Cellular Origin and Life in Extreme Habitats
  • 1999
Barbara Z. Siegel has used the enzyme peroxidase as an indicator thai an organism is under stress as part of her studies on cnvironmental stress physiology and has also contributed to elucidating peace processes through improving the general health and the quality of life in developing countries.
Broad oxygen tolerance in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.
Remarkably, long-term exposure to 100 % oxygen had no effect on the metabolic rate of C. elegans, and populations were able to survive for at least 50 generations in 100 % (90 kPa) oxygen.