Neither logical empiricism nor vitalism, but organicism: what the philosophy of biology was

@article{Nicholson2015NeitherLE,
  title={Neither logical empiricism nor vitalism, but organicism: what the philosophy of biology was},
  author={Daniel J. Nicholson and Richard Gawne},
  journal={History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences},
  year={2015},
  volume={37},
  pages={345-381}
}
Philosophy of biology is often said to have emerged in the last third of the twentieth century. Prior to this time, it has been alleged that the only authors who engaged philosophically with the life sciences were either logical empiricists who sought to impose the explanatory ideals of the physical sciences onto biology, or vitalists who invoked mystical agencies in an attempt to ward off the threat of physicochemical reduction. These schools paid little attention to actual biological science… 

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