Negotiating Unwelcome Police Encounters: The Intergenerational Transmission of Conduct Norms

  title={Negotiating Unwelcome Police Encounters: The Intergenerational Transmission of Conduct Norms},
  author={Rodney K. Brunson and Ronald Weitzer},
  journal={Journal of Contemporary Ethnography},
  pages={425 - 456}
Research on police—citizen relations is largely centered on how police officers treat citizens, with much less attention given to how citizens behave toward officers or how they may counsel others to behave if they are stopped by an officer. Several studies report that citizens’ demeanor affects the way they are treated by police, but researchers have neglected the larger question of whether, and if so how, citizens prepare for their contacts with officers prior to face-to-face encounters. The… 
The Rules of (Dis)engagement: Black Youth and Their Strategies for Navigating Police Contact
Prior work on youth–police relations examines young people’s general perceptions of the police, their differential treatment by police officers, and officers’ discretion in dealing with youth. Yet
Reconceptualizing Demeanor: The Implications of Civilian Procedurally Just Cooperation for Police Culture
This study revisits classic theoretical arguments regarding the broad effects of civilian demeanor on policing and extends associated findings. Our theoretical framework draws on the literatures on
The Revolution Might Not Be Televised (But It Will Be Lived Streamed)
Fiery nationwide protests in response to a recent string of dubious police killings of unarmed Black men have sparked a renewed social movement, drawing increased attention to fragile police–minority
"Kids Do Not So Much Make Trouble, They Are Trouble": Police-Youth Relations
Examination of police officers' decisions about which young people to watch, stop, search, and arrest contribute to historical and enduring justice system inequality finds reason for optimism in efforts to improve trust in minority communities and end racially discriminatory policing through practices based on procedural justice principles.
Attitudes Toward Police: A Comparison of Juvenile Offenders and Their Parent/Guardian
Carolyn J. Tompsett, Advisor Police-civilian relationships are crucial in fostering collaboration of the public necessary to keep communities safe. Negative attitudes toward the police impact
The Consequence of Being a Target of Suspicion: Potential Pitfalls of Proactive Policing
During the latter half of the 20th century a new model of policing developed in the United States which continues to dominate American policing today. It has two key features. First, it proactively
Scumbags! An ethnography of the interactions between street-based youth and police officers
ABSTRACT The interactions between young, disadvantaged, urban men and the rank-and-file officers who police them should be understood as layered structural, cultural and emotional phenomena. Using
Petty Crimes and Harassment: How Community Residents Understand Low-Level Enforcement in three High-Crime Neighborhoods in New York City
This paper examines how residents of high-crime communities understand so-called “quality of life” policing tactics and their effects on police-community relations. We demonstrate how focus groups
Policing the Ivory Tower: Students’ Perceptions of the Legitimacy of Campus Police Officers
Policing research has largely overlooked how college students’ perceptions of the legitimacy of campus police officers can be enhanced and diminished. Using data from interviews and focus groups with
Demeanor and police culture
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to revisit classic theoretical arguments regarding the broad effects of civilian demeanor on policing and extend associated findings.


Strategic Responses to the Police Among Inner-City Youth
Research on police–citizen relations is largely focused on how police officers treat citizens, with much less attention given to how citizens behave toward officers. Several studies report that
We use observations of police encounters with 3,130 suspects in Indianapolis and St. Petersburg to estimate three influences on police disrespect: how suspects behave, their personal characteristics,
Police-Citizen Encounters: A Field Test of Exchange Theory
A field interrogation is viewed as a two way exchange between a police officer and a citizen. Amount of cooperation given by the citizen is considered a reward to the police officer. This cooperation
Fairness and effectiveness in policing : the evidence
Because police are the most visible face of government power for most citizens, they are expected to deal effectively with crime and disorder and to be impartial. Producing justice through the fair,
Attitudes Toward the Police: The Effects of Direct and Vicarious Experience
Researchers have emphasized the importance of direct encounters with the police as a determinant of attitudes toward the police, yet cross-sectional studies allow for limited causal inference. This
A Theory of Deference Exchange in Police-Civilian Encounters
The authors suggest an explanation of police-civilian behavior based on a normative and interpersonal construct rather than on a psychological construct. Police behavior must be explained in terms of
Police Relations with Black and White Youths in Different Urban Neighborhoods
Much of the research on police—citizen relations has focused on adults, not youth. Given that adolescents and particularly young males are more likely than adults to have involuntary and adversarial
Police Attitudes Toward Abuse of Authority : Findings From a National Study
Foundation—a nonprofit organization in Washington, D.C., that seeks to improve policing in America through research— surveyed a representative national sample of American police officers to explore
Gender, Race, and Urban Policing
Proactive policing strategies produce a range of harms to African Americans in poor urban communities. We know little, however, about how aggressive policing is experienced across gender by
Retaliatory Homicide: Concentrated Disadvantage and Neighborhood Culture
Much of the research on violent crime is situated within an exclusively structural or subcultural framework. Some recent work, however, argues that these unidimensional approaches are inherently