Negativity Bias, Negativity Dominance, and Contagion

@article{Rozin2001NegativityBN,
  title={Negativity Bias, Negativity Dominance, and Contagion},
  author={Paul Rozin and Edward B. Royzman},
  journal={Personality and Social Psychology Review},
  year={2001},
  volume={5},
  pages={296 - 320}
}
We hypothesize that there is a general bias, based on both innatepredispositions and experience, in animals and humans, to give greater weight to negative entities (e.g., events, objects, personal traits). This is manifested in 4 ways: (a) negative potency (negative entities are stronger than the equivalent positive entities), (b) steeper negative gradients (the negativity of negative events grows more rapidly with approach to them in space or time than does the positivity of positive events… 

Tables from this paper

Valence Asymmetries in Attitude Ambivalence
TLDR
This investigation uncovers an interesting consequence of these asymmetries: When people have mixed reactions, they do not experience maximum ambivalence at equal levels of positivity and negativity, as suggested by canonicalAmbivalence theory, rather, subjective ambivalences peaks when positive reactions outnumber negative reactions.
Is negativity bias intuitive for liberals and conservatives?
Previous research suggests that conservatives (right-wingers) tend to show more negativity bias than liberals (left-wingers) in several tasks. However, the majority of these studies are based on
Bad World: The Negativity Bias in International Politics
A major puzzle in international relations is why states privilege negative over positive information. States tend to inflate threats, exhibit loss aversion, and learn more from failures than from
Negativity bias in false memory: moderation by neuroticism after a delay
TLDR
The Deese-Roediger-McDermott illusory memory paradigm was used to examine how the negativity bias might affect both correct recognition for negative and positive words and false recognition for associated critical lures, as well as how trait neuroticism might moderate these effects.
Not all emotions are created equal: the negativity bias in social-emotional development.
TLDR
The authors argue for the existence of the negativity bias in early development and that it is evident especially in research on infant social referencing but also in other developmental domains, and they discuss ontogenetic mechanisms underlying the emergence of this bias.
A general valence asymmetry in similarity: Good is more alike than bad.
TLDR
The spatial arrangement method (SpAM) is validated as a similarity measure and data support a general valence asymmetry in similarity, namely that good is more alike than bad.
Rethinking the Negativity Bias
TLDR
The negativity bias is submitted to its first dose of philosophical scrutiny and it is argued that it should be rejected and some alternative hedonic hypotheses that survive the offered arguments and may prove fruitful are offered.
The Contributions of Positive and Negative Affect to Emotional Well-Being
In this paper, the definitions of subjective well-being have been reviewed with a focus on its emotional core, which we consider to be the ratio of positive to negative affect over time. The reviewed
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 197 REFERENCES
Evaluative inference in social cognition: The roles of direct versus indirect evaluation and positive-negative asymmetry
Various implications regarding evaluative inference in social cognition are derived from (a) a relativistic evaluative-meaning concept dealing with evaluation as an interaction between descriptive
Negative information weighs more heavily on the brain: the negativity bias in evaluative categorizations.
TLDR
Results provide support for the hypothesis that the negativity bias in affective processing occurs as early as the initial categorization into valence classes.
The Pollyanna hypothesis.
How Pervasive is the Negativity Bias in Judgments Based on Character Appraisal?
Two experiments examined the generality of the negativity bias, the tendency of perceivers to regard immoral behaviors as more informative or diagnostic about an individual’s personal traits than
Beyond Bipolar Conceptualizations and Measures: The Case of Attitudes and Evaluative Space
  • J. Cacioppo, W. Gardner, G. Berntson
  • Psychology
    Personality and social psychology review : an official journal of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc
  • 1997
TLDR
Evidence is reviewed showing that the positive and negative evaluative processes underlying many attitudes are distinguishable, are characterized by distinct activation functions, are related differentially to attitude ambivalence, have distinguishable antecedents, and tend to gravitate from a bivariate toward a bipolar structure when the underlying beliefs are the target of deliberation or a guide for behavior.
Caught in the act: When impressions based on highly diagnostic behaviours are resistant to contradiction
Research and theory emphasizing the role of cue diagnosticity in judgment (e.g. Skowronski and Carlston, 1987, 1989) suggests that under the proper conditions: (a) negativity effects should be
The positive-negative asymmetry: On cognitive consistency and positivity bias
Positivity bias is approached from three viewpoints: (a) It may be the effect of purely cognitive dispositions. (b) As such, it may function as an hypothesis about reality. The related dynamic factor
Relationship between attitudes and evaluative space: A critical review, with emphasis on the separability of positive and negative substrates.
Evaluative processes refer to the operations by which organisms discriminate threatening from nurturant environments. Low activation of positive and negative evaluative processes by a stimulus
The Pollyanna Principle: Selectivity in Language, Memory, and Thought
Originally published in Contemporary Psychology: APA Review of Books, 1981, Vol 26(8), 648. Reviews the book, The Pollyanna Principle: Selectivity in Language, Memory, and Thought by Margaret W.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...