Negative temperature states of two-dimensional plasmas and vortex fluids

@article{Edwards1974NegativeTS,
  title={Negative temperature states of two-dimensional plasmas and vortex fluids},
  author={S. Edwards and J. B. Taylor},
  journal={Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. A. Mathematical and Physical Sciences},
  year={1974},
  volume={336},
  pages={257 - 271}
}
  • S. Edwards, J. B. Taylor
  • Published 1974
  • Physics
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. A. Mathematical and Physical Sciences
The two-dimensional guiding centre plasma and a system of interacting line vortices in an ideal fluid are examples of Hamiltonian systems with bounded phase space. The statistical mechanics of such systems is investigated. An interesting feature is that they can exist in negative temperature states which show observable intrinsic characteristics, such as the formation of clusters of particles. 

References

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Theory and numerical simulation on plasma diffusion across a magnetic field
Equation of State for a Two‐Dimensional Electrolyte