Negative refraction makes a perfect lens

  title={Negative refraction makes a perfect lens},
  journal={Physical review letters},
  volume={85 18},
  • Pendry
  • Published 30 October 2000
  • Physics
  • Physical review letters
With a conventional lens sharpness of the image is always limited by the wavelength of light. An unconventional alternative to a lens, a slab of negative refractive index material, has the power to focus all Fourier components of a 2D image, even those that do not propagate in a radiative manner. Such "superlenses" can be realized in the microwave band with current technology. Our simulations show that a version of the lens operating at the frequency of visible light can be realized in the form… 

Figures from this paper

Photonic crystals: Imaging by flat lens using negative refraction
This work demonstrates this unique feature of imaging by a flat lens, using the phenomenon of negative refraction in a photonic crystalline material, in order to achieve negative refractive index over a wide range of angles.
Performance of a negative index of refraction lens
A plano-concave lens with negative index of refraction has been designed and fabricated. Such lenses have been postulated for many years, but only recently has their realization been made possible
How to Build a Superlens
Conventional lenses are subject to the diffraction limit, which means that they cannot resolve objects placed closer together than one-half of the wavelength of the illuminating light. As Smith
Enhanced and tunable resolution from an imperfect negative refractive index lens
Material loss diminishes the ability of a negative refractive index material to function as a superresolution lens. We find that the transmittance of a negative index slab can be greatly enhanced at
Aberration reduction and unique light focusing in a photonic crystal negative refractive lens.
Results prove the feasibility of an in-plane free space optical network based on negative refraction and two unique functions of this lens are demonstrated: refocusing outside of the PC and parallel focusing, enabling image transfer and real image formation, respectively.
Perfect cylindrical lenses.
Here it is shown how a hollow cylinder of material can be designed to magnify an image but otherwise with the same perfection as the original lens.
The problem of a perfect lens made of a slab with negative refraction
The problem of the principal existence of the perfect lens and superlensing is discussed. We have demonstrated that in the case of the virtual focus the idea of perfect lens based upon amplification
Subwavelength imaging by a flat cylindrical lens using optimized negative refraction
We experimentally demonstrate subwavelength imaging by a “flat cylindrical” lens using negative refraction. A two-dimensional photonic crystal whose dispersion at the second band provides group
Bringing the ‘perfect lens’ into focus by near-perfect compensation of losses without gain media
In this paper, the optical properties and imaging performance of a non-ideal Pendry’s negative index flat lens with a practical value for loss are studied. Analytical calculations of the optical
Negative index of refraction, perfect lenses and transformation optics - some words of caution.
In this paper we show that a negative index of refraction is not a direct implication of transformation optics with orientation-reversing diffeomorphisms. Rather, a negative index appears due to a


IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
  • M. Steer
  • Computer Science
    IEEE Microwave Magazine
  • 2000
The increased impact of microwave and millimeter-wave systems is noticeable throughout society, especially in 5G communications, automotive radars, safety/security applications, and in bio-medical sensors.
  • Rev. 106, 874
  • 1957
Willie J
  • Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat- Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184
  • 2000
Microwave Theory Tech
  • 47, 2075
  • 1999
  • Phys. Usp. 10, 509
  • 1968
  • Rev. Lett. 76, 2480 (1996); J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773 (1996); J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 4785
  • 1998
  • Rev. Lett. 83, 2845
  • 1999
Soviet Physics USPEKHI
  • 10, 509
  • 1968