Negative campaigning in Western Europe: beyond the vote-seeking perspective

@inproceedings{Walter2012NegativeCI,
  title={Negative campaigning in Western Europe: beyond the vote-seeking perspective},
  author={A. S. Walter},
  year={2012}
}
Are election campaigns in Western Europe becoming more negative? Under which circumstances do political parties decide to attack? Are there differences in negative campaigning between the British two-three party system and the Dutch and German multiparty systems, which have a political culture of bargaining and coalition cooperation? Whom do political parties target when there is more than one opponent to choose from? As political parties in Western Europe lose their grip on the electoral… CONTINUE READING