Negative affective states and cognitive impairments in nicotine dependence.

  title={Negative affective states and cognitive impairments in nicotine dependence.},
  author={F. Scott Hall and Andre Der-Avakian and Thomas J Gould and Athina Markou and Mohammed Shoaib and Jared W. Young},
  journal={Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews},
Smokers have substantial individual differences in quit success in response to current treatments for nicotine dependence. This observation may suggest that different underlying motivations for continued tobacco use across individuals and nicotine cessation may require different treatments in different individuals. Although most animal models of nicotine dependence emphasize the positive reinforcing effects of nicotine as the major motivational force behind nicotine use, smokers generally… CONTINUE READING
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