Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for the Passivity of Impedance Rendering With Velocity-Sourced Series Elastic Actuation

@article{Tosun2020NecessaryAS,
  title={Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for the Passivity of Impedance Rendering With Velocity-Sourced Series Elastic Actuation},
  author={Fatih Emre Tosun and Volkan Patoglu},
  journal={IEEE Transactions on Robotics},
  year={2020},
  volume={36},
  pages={757-772}
}
Series elastic actuation (SEA) has become prevalent in applications involving physical human–robot interaction, as it provides considerable advantages over traditional stiff actuators in terms of stability robustness and force control fidelity. Several impedance control architectures have been proposed for SEA. Among these alternatives, the cascaded controller with an innermost velocity loop, an intermediate torque loop, and an outermost impedance loop is particularly favored for its simplicity… 
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