Journal of clinical monitoring and computing 2016 end of year summary: monitoring cerebral oxygenation and autoregulation
During open abdominal aortic aneurism (AAA) repair cerebral blood flow is challenged. Clamping of the aorta may lead to unintended hyperventilation as metabolism is reduced by perfusion of a smaller part of the body and reperfusion of the aorta releases vasodilatory substances including CO2. We intend to adjust ventilation according end-tidal CO2 tension (EtCO2) and here evaluated to what extent that strategy maintains frontal lobe oxygenation (ScO2) as determined by near infrared spectroscopy. For 44 patients [5 women, aged 70 (48–83) years] ScO2, mean arterial pressure (MAP), EtCO2, and ventilation were obtained retrospectively from the anesthetic charts. By clamping the aorta, ScO2 and EtCO2 were kept stable by reducing ventilation (median, −0.8 l min−1; interquartile range, −1.1 to −0.4; P < 0.001). During reperfusion of the aorta a reduction in MAP by 8 mmHg (−15 to −1; P < 0.001) did not prevent an increase in ScO2 by 2 % (−1 to 4; P < 0.001) as EtCO2 increased 0.5 kPa (0.1–1.0; P < 0.001) despite an increase in ventilation by 1.8 l min−1 (0.9–2.7; P < 0.001). Changes in ScO2 related to those in EtCO2 (r = 0.41; P = 0.0001) and cerebral deoxygenation (−15 %) was noted in three patients while cerebral hyperoxygenation (+15 %) manifests in one patient. Thus changes in ScO2 were kept within acceptable limits (±15 %) in 91 % of the patients. For the majority of the patients undergoing AAA repair ScO2 was kept within reasonable limits by reducing ventilation by approximately 1 l min−1 upon clamping of the aorta and increasing ventilation by approximately 2 l min−1 when the lower body is reperfused.