Neanderthals in central Asia and Siberia

@article{Krause2007NeanderthalsIC,
  title={Neanderthals in central Asia and Siberia},
  author={Johannes Krause and Ludovic Orlando and David Serre and Bence Viola and Kay Pr{\"u}fer and Michael P. Richards and Jean‐Jacques Hublin and Catherine H{\"a}nni and Anatoly P. Derevianko and Svante P{\"a}{\"a}bo},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2007},
  volume={449},
  pages={902-904}
}
Morphological traits typical of Neanderthals began to appear in European hominids at least 400,000 years ago and about 150,000 years ago in western Asia. After their initial appearance, such traits increased in frequency and the extent to which they are expressed until they disappeared shortly after 30,000 years ago. However, because most fossil hominid remains are fragmentary, it can be difficult or impossible to determine unambiguously whether a fossil is of Neanderthal origin. This limits… 
Neanderthals
  • K. Harvati
  • Geography
    Encyclopedic Dictionary of Archaeology
  • 2021
Neanderthals are a group of fossil humans that inhabited Western Eurasia from approximately 300 to 30,000 years ago (ka). They vanished from the fossil record a few millennia after the first modern
Neanderthals and Their Contemporaries
Neanderthals are the group of fossil humans that inhabited Western Eurasia from the mid-Middle Pleistocene until ca. 40 Ka ago, when they disappeared from the fossil record, only a few millennia
The complete mitochondrial DNA genome of an unknown hominin from southern Siberia
TLDR
A complete mitochondrial DNA sequence retrieved from a bone excavated in 2008 in Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains in southern Siberia represents a hitherto unknown type of hominin mtDNA that shares a common ancestor with anatomically modern human and Neanderthal mtDNAs about 1.0 million years ago.
Genetic history of an archaic hominin group from Denisova Cave in Siberia
TLDR
A tooth found in Denisova Cave carries a mitochondrial genome highly similar to that of the finger bone, further indicating that Denisovans have an evolutionary history distinct from Neanderthals and modern humans.
The origin of Neandertals
  • J. Hublin
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • 2009
TLDR
The term “Homo rhodesiensis” is proposed to be used to designate the large-brained hominins ancestral to H. sapiens in Africa and at the root of the Neandertals in Europe, and the term ‘Homo neanderthalensis’ to designate all of the specimens carrying derived metrical or non-metrical features used in the definition of the LP NeandERTals.
To what extent did Neanderthals and modern humans interact?
TLDR
The current anthropological, archaeological and genetic data are reviewed, which shed some light on these questions and provide insight into the exact nature of the relationships between these two groups of humans.
Archaeological evidence for two separate dispersals of Neanderthals into southern Siberia
TLDR
This work identifies eastern Europe as the most probable ancestral source region for the Chagyrskaya toolmakers, supported by DNA results linking the Neanderthal remains with populations in northern Croatia and the northern Caucasus, and providing a rare example of a long-distance, intercontinental population movement associated with a distinctive Paleolithic toolkit.
Neanderthals and Modern Humans Across Eurasia
Neanderthals, a European population was undoubtedly successful in surviving through several glacial periods. Their population, originally spread across Europe, composed of small communities but
The History of Hominin Occupation of Central Asia in Review
  • M. Glantz
  • Geography, Environmental Science
  • 2011
The timing of hominin dispersals during the early Pleistocene, specifically into East Asia, is well established. The pattern of migration across inner Asia and the subsequent duration/intensity of
The Date of Interbreeding between Neandertals and Modern Humans
TLDR
The extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the genomes of present-day Europeans is measured and it is found that the last gene flow from Neandertals (or their relatives) into Europeans likely occurred 37,000–86,000 years before the present (BP), and most likely 47,000-65,000 year ago.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 38 REFERENCES
Molecular analysis of Neanderthal DNA from the northern Caucasus
TLDR
Phylogenetic analysis places the two Neanderthals from the Caucasus and western Germany together in a clade that is distinct from modern humans, suggesting that their mtDNA types have not contributed to the modern human mtDNA pool.
Neandertal evolutionary genetics: mitochondrial DNA data from the iberian peninsula.
TLDR
An estimate of effective population size indicates that the genetic history of the Neandertals was not shaped by an extreme population bottleneck associated with the glacial maximum of 130,000 years ago and fits chronologically with a proposed speciation event of Homo neanderthalensis.
Modern Humans Did Not Admix with Neanderthals during Their Range Expansion into Europe
TLDR
A realistic model of the range expansion of early modern humans into Europe, and of their competition and potential admixture with local Neanderthals, shows that the absence of Neanderthal mtDNA sequences in Europe is compatible with at most 120 admixture events between the two populations despite a likely cohabitation time of more than 12,000 y.
Evidence for a genetic discontinuity between Neandertals and 24,000-year-old anatomically modern Europeans
TLDR
Following the most stringent current standards for validation of ancient DNA sequences, it is shown that the mtDNAs of two anatomically modern Homo sapiens sapiens individuals of the Cro-Magnon type dated at about 23 and 25 thousand years ago fall well within the range of variation of today's humans, but differ sharply from the available sequences of the chronologically closer Neandertals.
No Evidence of Neandertal mtDNA Contribution to Early Modern Humans
TLDR
The biomolecular preservation of four Neandertals and of five early modern humans was good enough to suggest the preservation of DNA, and in combination with current mtDNA data, this excludes any large genetic contribution by Ne andertals to early modern human humans, but does not rule out the possibility of a smaller contribution.
The Neandertal type site revisited: Interdisciplinary investigations of skeletal remains from the Neander Valley, Germany
  • R. Schmitz, D. Serre, F. Smith
  • Geology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2002
TLDR
This work reports excavations of cave sediments that were removed from the Feldhofer caves in 1856 that yielded over 60 human skeletal fragments, along with a large series of Paleolithic artifacts and faunal material that represents the first interdisciplinary analysis of Neandertal remains incorporating genetic, direct dating, and morphological dimensions simultaneously.
Analysis of one million base pairs of Neanderthal DNA
TLDR
A 38,000-year-old Neanderthal fossil that is exceptionally free of contamination from modern human DNA is identified and it is revealed that modern human and Neanderthal DNA sequences diverged on average about 500,000 years ago.
Rapid ecological turnover and its impact on Neanderthal and other human populations.
...
...