Neanderthal Demographic Estimates

  title={Neanderthal Demographic Estimates},
  author={Jean-Pierre Bocquet-Appel and Anna Degioanni},
  journal={Current Anthropology},
  pages={S202 - S213}
This article offers a critical review of population estimates for the Neanderthal metapopulation based on (paleo-) biological, archaeological, climatic, and genetic data. What do these data tell us about putative Neanderthal demography? Biological data suggest a similar demographic frame (life-history traits, such as potential maximum longevity, age at menarche, and duration of gestation) between Neanderthals and modern humans. Archaeological data have revealed a contradiction between the… 
Living on the edge: Was demographic weakness the cause of Neanderthal demise?
The extent of demographic changes needed over a period of 10,000 years to lead to Neanderthal extinction is examined, finding a slight but continuous decrease in the fertility rate of younger Neanderthal women could have had a significant impact on these dynamics, and could have precipitated their demise.
Inbreeding, Allee effects and stochasticity might be sufficient to account for Neanderthal extinction
Two independent models suggest that if modern humans contributed to the demise of Neanderthals, that contribution might have had nothing to do with resource competition, but rather with how the incoming populations geographically restructured the resident populations, in a way that reinforced Allee effects, and the effects of inbreeding and stochasticity.
Quantifying the potential causes of Neanderthal extinction: abrupt climate change versus competition and interbreeding
A spatially resolved numerical hominin dispersal model (HDM) with empirically constrained key parameters that simulates the migration and interaction of Anatomically Modern Humans and Neanderthals in the rapidly varying climatic environment of the last ice age is presented.
A parsimonious neutral model suggests Neanderthal replacement was determined by migration and random species drift
A neutral model of species drift is developed showing that rapid Neanderthal replacement can be explained parsimoniously by simple migration dynamics, and suggests that although selection and environmental factors may or may not have played a role in the inter-species dynamics of Neanderthals and modern humans, the eventual replacement was determined by the repeated migration of modern humans from Africa into Eurasia.
Demography and the Palaeolithic Archaeological Record
Demographic change has recently re-emerged as a key explanation for socio-cultural changes documented in the prehistoric archaeological record. While the majority of studies of Pleistocene demography
Small and isolated: ecology and fragmentation of Neanderthals
introduction Neanderthals lived in Eurasia alongside anatomically modern humans (AMHs). The oldest evidence of a Neanderthal population was found at Zuttiyeh (Israel), with an age around 200,000
Random drift with a determined outcome: a parsimonious null model of Neanderthal replacement by modern humans via neutral species drift
It is shown that, given that the two species occupied a similar ecological niche, modern humans were destined to replace the Neanderthals even under a neutral scenario in which neither species has a selective advantage.


Climatic Changes, Paleogeography, and the Evolution of the Neandertals
  • J. Hublin
  • Geography, Environmental Science
  • 2002
Mainly because of historical reasons, Europe has provided the largest series of Middle and Upper Pleistocene hominids. Many of the sites which yielded these specimens can be placed in a reliable
Neanderthal mortality patterns
Genetic Evidence of Geographical Groups among Neanderthals
It seems from the results that the size of the Neanderthal population was not constant and that some migration occurred among the demes, and that Neanderthals can be divided into at least three groups: one in western Europe, a second in the Southern area and a third in western Asia.
Sequencing and Analysis of Neanderthal Genomic DNA
The characterization of Neanderthals from a new perspective is described, based on the development of a Neanderthal metagenomic library and its high-throughput sequencing and analysis, and the finding that the Neanderthal and human genomes are at least 99.5% identical is found.
No evidence of Neandertal admixture in the mitochondrial genomes of early European modern humans and contemporary Europeans.
A model of genealogical continuity between EEMH and contemporary Europeans, with no Neandertal contribution, received overwhelming support from the analyses, and nuclear and mitochondrial evidence might be reconciled if smaller population sizes led to faster lineage sorting for mitochondrial DNA, and NeandERTals shared a longer period of common ancestry with the non-African's than with the African's ancestors.
Neanderthals in central Asia and Siberia
To determine how far to the east Neanderthals ranged, mtDNA sequences from hominid remains found in Uzbekistan and in the Altai region of southern Siberia are determined and it is shown that the DNA sequences from these fossils fall within the European Neanderthal mtDNA variation.
Neanderthal news: Extinct species exhibits variability
  • J. Shea
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 2011
These continuity hypotheses have found support from analyses of aDNA from fossils and variation in the DNA of living humans, suggesting that some significant portion of Eurasian humans, and possibly some North Africans as well, have genes that are traceable to Neanderthal ancestors.