Neandertal evolutionary genetics: mitochondrial DNA data from the iberian peninsula.

@article{LaluezaFox2005NeandertalEG,
  title={Neandertal evolutionary genetics: mitochondrial DNA data from the iberian peninsula.},
  author={Carles Lalueza-Fox and Mar{\'i}a Lourdes Sampietro and David Caramelli and Yvonne Puder and Martina Lari and Francesc Calafell and Cayetana Mart{\'i}nez-Maza and Markus Bastir and Javier Fortea and Marco de la Rasilla and Jaume Bertranpetit and Antonio Rosas},
  journal={Molecular biology and evolution},
  year={2005},
  volume={22 4},
  pages={
          1077-81
        }
}
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was retrieved for the first time from a Neandertal from the Iberian Peninsula, excavated from the El Sidrón Cave (Asturias, North of Spain), and dated to ca. 43,000 years ago. The sequence suggests that Iberian Neandertals were not genetically distinct from those of other regions. An estimate of effective population size indicates that the genetic history of the Neandertals was not shaped by an extreme population bottleneck associated with the glacial maximum of 130… 

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