Up to now most attempts to develop pedestrian navigation tools for the urban environment have used GPS technologies to display position on two-dimensional digital maps (as in the classic 'satnav' systems on the market). Although GPS is the key technology for location-based services (LBS), it cannot currently meet all the requirements for navigation in urban environments. Specifically, GPS technologies suffer from multipath signal degradation and they cannot provide orientation information at low or zero speed, which is an essential component of navigation. It has also been demonstrated in research that maps are not always the most effective interfaces to pedestrian navigation applications on mobile devices. This paper will explore solutions to the orientation and interface challenges in pedestrian navigation on mobile devices. Orientation information is necessary to help the user selflocalise in an unknown environment and can be provided by calibrated digital compass integrated with the GPS positioning. Further orientation assistance can be provided by computer-vision techniques by detecting features included in the navigation route. These can be either user-predefined fiducials or a careful selection of features belonging into the real world (i.e. parts of buildings). With the combination of position and orientation it is possible to design augmented reality interfaces, which offer a richer cognitive experience and which, deliver orientation information infinitely and without the limitations of maps. Augmented reality is a collection of technologies with the aim of enhancing the real environment with digital information. The paper will be illustrated with applications and case studies from the LOCUS project forming part of the UK Pinpoint Faraday Initiative (now succeeded by the Location and Timing Knowledge Transfer Network). European Navigation Conference 2006, 7-10 May, 2006. 2 Liarokapis F, et al., Navigating within the urban environment using Location and Orientation-based Services.