Navigating Large-Scale Virtual Environments: What Differences Occur Between Helmet-Mounted and Desk-Top Displays?

@article{Ruddle1999NavigatingLV,
  title={Navigating Large-Scale Virtual Environments: What Differences Occur Between Helmet-Mounted and Desk-Top Displays?},
  author={Roy A. Ruddle and Stephen J. Payne and Dylan M. Jones},
  journal={Presence: Teleoperators \& Virtual Environments},
  year={1999},
  volume={8},
  pages={157-168}
}
Participants used a helmet-mounted display (HMD) and a desk-top (monitor) display to learn the layouts of two large-scale virtual environments (VEs) through repeated, direct navigational experience. Both VEs were virtual buildings containing more than seventy rooms. Participants using the HMD navigated the buildings significantly more quickly and developed a significantly more accurate sense of relative straight-line distance. There was no significant difference between the two types of display… 
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