Nausea and vomiting side effects with opioid analgesics during treatment of chronic pain: mechanisms, implications, and management options.

@article{Porreca2009NauseaAV,
  title={Nausea and vomiting side effects with opioid analgesics during treatment of chronic pain: mechanisms, implications, and management options.},
  author={F rank Porreca and Michael H. Ossipov},
  journal={Pain medicine},
  year={2009},
  volume={10 4},
  pages={654-62}
}
OBJECTIVES Gastrointestinal (GI) side effects such as nausea and vomiting are common following opioid analgesia and represent a significant cause of patient discomfort and treatment dissatisfaction. This review examines the mechanisms that produce these side effects, their impact on treatment outcomes in chronic pain patients, and counteractive strategies. RESULTS A number of mechanisms by which opioids produce nausea and vomiting have been identified. These involve both central and… CONTINUE READING
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