Nature's chemicals and synthetic chemicals: comparative toxicology.

@article{Ames1990NaturesCA,
  title={Nature's chemicals and synthetic chemicals: comparative toxicology.},
  author={Bruce N. Ames and Margie Profet and Lois Swirsky Gold},
  journal={Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
  year={1990},
  volume={87},
  pages={7782 - 7786}
}
  • B. Ames, M. Profet, L. Gold
  • Published 1 October 1990
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
The toxicology of synthetic chemicals is compared to that of natural chemicals, which represent the vast bulk of the chemicals to which humans are exposed. It is argued that animals have a broad array of inducible general defenses to combat the changing array of toxic chemicals in plant food (nature's pesticides) and that these defenses are effective against both natural and synthetic toxins. Synthetic toxins such as dioxin are compared to natural chemicals, such as indole carbinol (in broccoli… 
Dietary pesticides (99.99% all natural).
  • B. Ames, M. Profet, L. Gold
  • Chemistry, Medicine
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1990
TLDR
It is concluded that natural and synthetic chemicals are equally likely to be positive in animal cancer tests, and that at the low doses of most human exposures the comparative hazards of synthetic pesticide residues are insignificant.
Rodent carcinogens: setting priorities.
TLDR
Results indicate that, when viewed against the large background of naturally occurring carcinogens in typical portions of common foods, the residues of synthetic pesticides or environmental pollutants rank low, and cast doubt on the relative importance for human cancer of low-dose exposures to synthetic chemicals.
Natural Toxicants in Foods
TLDR
The purpose of exploring the potential naturally occurring toxic hazards of food plants is not to suggest an irrational avoidance of these common foods, but to provide some perspective on these chemicals and to show clearly that their toxicology is unknown in most cases.
Carcinogenic chemicals in food: evaluating the health risk.
  • P. Abbott
  • Chemistry, Medicine
    Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • 1992
TLDR
There needs to be a more holistic approach to the multitude of factors, including total diet, that may influence human cancer incidence, and the relative risk of dietary chemicals may be given a more meaningful perspective for health professionals and consumers alike.
Some established facts and some new concepts in food toxicology
According to widespread public opinion, environmental contaminants and food additives are major chemical hazards in food. In contrast, scientific evidence shows that levels of environmental
Synthetic Chemical Insecticides: Environmental and Agro Contaminants
Synthetic pesticides are indispensable in intensive agricultural productions. For decades these compounds served as backbone in insect pest management. Due to persistence and pervasiveness of
Natural products in plant protection
TLDR
The progress that was made in the development of natural bioactive compounds in pest and disease control is decribed.
SOME ESTABLISHED FACTS AND SOME NEW CONCEPTS IN FOOD TOXICOLOGY A REVIEW a
chemical hazards in food. In contrast, scientific evidence shows that levels of environmental contaminants, such as heavy metals or residues of pesticides, have greatly decreased in the last three
The dangers of nature and food Toxic substances
Plants are replete with thousands of proteins and small molecules, many of which are species-specific, poisonous or dangerous. Over time humans have learned to avoid dangerous plants or inactivate
Risks from natural versus synthetic insecticides.
  • J. Coats
  • Biology, Medicine
    Annual review of entomology
  • 1994
TLDR
The authors' present society can afford to discuss long-term health implications of agents used to control insect pests, and many new and difficult questions have emerged about health and environmental health, giving rise to a distinct area of study called risk assessment.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 74 REFERENCES
Mutagenesis and carcinogenesis: Endogenous and exogenous factors
  • B. Ames
  • Biology, Medicine
    Environmental and molecular mutagenesis
  • 1989
TLDR
In the evolutionary war between plants and animals, animals have developed layers of general defenses, almost all inducible, against a world of natural toxic chemicals, which means the authors are well buffered against toxicity at low doses from both man‐made and natural chemicals.
Ranking the potential carcinogenic hazards to workers from exposures to chemicals that are tumorigenic in rodents.
For 41 chemicals there exist both reasonable data on carcinogenic potency in experimental animals and also a defined Permissible Exposure Level (PEL), which is the upper limit of legally permissible
Chemical carcinogenesis: too many rodent carcinogens.
  • B. Ames, L. Gold
  • Biology, Medicine
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1990
TLDR
It is concluded that at the low doses of most human exposures, where cell killing does not occur, the hazards to humans of rodent carcinogens may be much lower than is commonly assumed.
Ranking possible carcinogenic hazards.
TLDR
This review discusses reasons why animal cancer tests cannot be used to predict absolute human risks, and suggests that carcinogenic hazards from current levels of pesticide residues or water pollution are likely to be of minimal concern relative to the background levels of natural substances.
Induction of estradiol metabolism by dietary indole-3-carbinol in humans.
TLDR
It is indicated that indole-3-carbinol strongly influences estradiol metabolism in humans and may provide a new chemopreventive approach to estrogen-dependent diseases.
Mechanisms of anti-carcinogenesis by indole-3-carbinol: detailed in vivo DNA binding dose-response studies after dietary administration with aflatoxin B1.
TLDR
The linear inhibitory response observed at low I3C doses indicates the possible absence of any significant threshold for I2C protection against AFB1--DNA binding, and may offer some protection against chemically-induced neoplasia.
Non-genotoxic carcinogenesis: implications for testing and extrapolation to man.
  • F. Roe
  • Biology, Medicine
    Mutagenesis
  • 1989
It is argued that non-genotoxic mechanisms may be more important than genotoxic mechanisms in the genesis of cancer and that the use of tests for genotoxicity to screen chemicals for carcinogenicity
Natural anticarcinogens, carcinogens, and changing patterns in cancer: some speculation.
  • D. Davis
  • Biology, Medicine
    Environmental research
  • 1989
TLDR
Data indicate that naturally occurring substances in food influence cancer initiation, promotion, progression, and demotion by a number of mechanisms, including naturally occurring anticarcinogenic compounds to block the initiation of carcinogenesis.
Chemical and biological properties of indole glucosinolates (glucobrassicins): a review.
TLDR
The chemical and physiological properties of indole glucosinolates and their products are detailed and possible areas for future research are suggested.
Glucosinolates and their breakdown products in food and food plants.
TLDR
This review surveys the occurrence, analysis, and properties of glucosinolates and derived compounds in plants and products intended for humans and animal consumption and places particular emphasis on members of the Brassica family.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...