The genetic component of variation of enzyme activity levels in Drosophila melanogaster was investigated by using 48 second- and 48 third-chromosome isogenic substitution lines derived from natural populations. The results confirm those of our earlier experiments with the same lines and extend them to a number of additional enzymes. All 23 enzymes show a significant genetic component to the variation in one or both sets of lines and only a small part of this variation is accounted for by variation among the lines in the amount of tissue per fly. The magnitude of line effects is, in most cases, considerably larger than the magnitude of environmental and measurement error effects, and the line effects are approximately continuous in distribution. Variation in the geographic origin and karyotype of the chromosomes generally does not contribute to the line component of variation, but allozymes provide an important source of variation for a few of the enzymes. Many of the enzymes show evidence for variation of activity modifiers that are not linked to the structural locus of the enzyme.