Naturalization and invasion of alien plants: concepts and definitions

  title={Naturalization and invasion of alien plants: concepts and definitions},
  author={David M. Richardson and Petr Py{\vs}ek and Marcel Rejm{\'a}nek and Michael G. Barbour and F. Dane Panetta and Carol J. West},
  journal={Diversity and Distributions},
Abstract.  Much confusion exists in the English‐language literature on plant invasions concerning the terms ‘naturalized’ and ‘invasive’ and their associated concepts. Several authors have used these terms in proposing schemes for conceptualizing the sequence of events from introduction to invasion, but often imprecisely, erroneously or in contradictory ways. This greatly complicates the formulation of robust generalizations in invasion ecology. 

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