Naturalistic studies of aggressive behavior: aggressive stimuli, victim visibility, and horn honking.

@article{Turner1975NaturalisticSO,
  title={Naturalistic studies of aggressive behavior: aggressive stimuli, victim visibility, and horn honking.},
  author={Charles W. Turner and John F Layton and Lynn Stanley Simons},
  journal={Journal of personality and social psychology},
  year={1975},
  volume={31 6},
  pages={
          1098-107
        }
}
Three studies extended laboratory research on aggression to a naturalistic setting which involved horn honking from drivers as a measure of aggression; the studies were adapted from Doob and Gross. The results from a survey (Study 1) of 59 drivers suggested that they were frequently irritated by and aggressive toward other drivers. A second study (using a 3x2 factorial design with 92 male drivers) indicated that manipulations of a rifle in an aggressive context and victim visibility… Expand
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