Natural versus forced convection in laminar starting plumes

  title={Natural versus forced convection in laminar starting plumes},
  author={Michael C. Rogers and Stephen Morris},
  journal={Physics of Fluids},
A starting plume or jet has a well-defined, evolving head that is driven through the surrounding quiescent fluid by a localized flux of either buoyancy or momentum, or both. We studied the scaling and morphology of starting plumes produced by a constant flux of buoyant fluid from a small, submerged outlet. The plumes were laminar and spanned a wide range of plume Richardson numbers Ri. Ri is the dimensionless ratio of the buoyancy forces to inertial effects and thus our measurements crossed… Expand

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