Natural normativity: The ‘is’ and ‘ought’ of animal behavior

  title={Natural normativity: The ‘is’ and ‘ought’ of animal behavior},
  author={Frans B.M. de Waal},
The evolution of behavior is sometimes considered irrelevant to the issue of human morality, since it lacks the normative character of morality (‘ought’), and consist entirely of descriptions of how things are or came about (‘is’). Evolved behavior, including that of other animals, is not entirely devoid of normativity, however. Defining normativity as adherence to an ideal or standard, there is ample evidence that animals treat their social relationships in this manner. In other words, they… 

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