# Natural networks as thermodynamic systems

@article{Hartonen2012NaturalNA, title={Natural networks as thermodynamic systems}, author={Tuomo Hartonen and Arto Annila}, journal={Complex.}, year={2012}, volume={18}, pages={53-62} }

Natural networks are considered as thermodynamic systems that evolve from one state to another by consuming free energy. The least-time consumption of free energy is found to result in ubiquitous scale-free characteristics. The network evolution will yield the scale-independent qualities because the least-time imperative will prefer attachment of nodes that contribute most to the free-energy consumption. The analysis of evolutionary equation of motion, derived from statistical physics of open…

## Figures from this paper

## 38 Citations

### Quantum–classical transitions in complex networks

- Computer Science, Physics
- 2013

This paper shows that the emergence of different structures in complex networks, such as the scale-free and the winner-takes-all networks, can be represented in terms of a quantum–classical transition for quantum gases.

### Fermionic networks: modeling adaptive complex networks with fermionic gases

- Computer Science
- 2016

This study analyzes fermionic networks and opinion dynamics processes over them, framing this network model as a computational model useful to represent complex and adaptive systems.

### Exponential Self-Organization and Mooreźs Law

- Physics
- 2017

The question of how complex systems become more organized and efficient with time is open. Examples are the formation of elementary particles from pure energy, the formation of atoms from particles,…

### Exponential Self-Organization and Moore's Law: Measures and Mechanisms

- PhysicsComplex.
- 2017

This work searches for global measures of self-organizing systems, that are predictable and do not depend on the substrate of the system studied, and provides insights about the underlying physical essence of the Moore's law and the multiple logistic growth observed in technological progress.

### Phase Transitions in Fermionic Networks

- Physics, Computer ScienceICANNGA
- 2013

A model of fermionic networks is proposed that allows to investigate the network evolution and its dependence on the system temperature and it is found that, at very low temperatures, a winner-takes-all structure emerges.

### Complex physical properties of a self-organizing biological system

- Physics
- 2021

A stochastic model of adaptive immunity may provide a universal physical model for self-organizing systems with power law distribution of thermodynamic activities.

### A Link between Nano- and Classical Thermodynamics: Dissipation Analysis (The Entropy Generation Approach in Nano-Thermodynamics)

- PhysicsEntropy
- 2015

The use of the recent improvement of the Gouy-Stodola theorem to complex systems (GSGL approach), based on the use of entropy generation, is suggested to obtain the extension of classical thermodynamics to nanothermodynamics.

## References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 93 REFERENCES

### Emergence of scaling in random networks

- Computer ScienceScience
- 1999

A model based on these two ingredients reproduces the observed stationary scale-free distributions, which indicates that the development of large networks is governed by robust self-organizing phenomena that go beyond the particulars of the individual systems.

### Bose-Einstein condensation in complex networks.

- PhysicsPhysical review letters
- 2001

The evolution of many complex systems, including the World Wide Web, business, and citation networks, is encoded in the dynamic web describing the interactions between the system's constituents, and addressing the dynamical properties of these nonequilibrium systems within the framework of equilibrium quantum gases predicts the "first-mover-advantage," "fit-get-rich," and "winner-takes-all" phenomena.

### Natural emergence

- BiologyComplex.
- 2012

The analysis of emergence as a natural process reveals that its irreducible and unpredictable nature does not result from complexity as such but because the natural process itself is molding the surroundings where it is evolving.

### Collective dynamics of ‘small-world’ networks

- Computer ScienceNature
- 1998

Simple models of networks that can be tuned through this middle ground: regular networks ‘rewired’ to introduce increasing amounts of disorder are explored, finding that these systems can be highly clustered, like regular lattices, yet have small characteristic path lengths, like random graphs.

### Space, Time and Machines

- Physics
- 2012

The 2nd law of thermodynamics is used to shed light on present-day puzzles in cosmology. The universal law, given as an equation of motion, describes diverse systems when consuming free energy via…

### Economies Evolve by Energy Dispersal

- EconomicsEntropy
- 2009

Economic activity can be regarded as an evolutionary process governed by the 2nd law of thermodynamics, and the law of diminishing returns follows from the diminishing free energy while the relation between supply and demand displays a quest for a balance among interdependent energy densities.