Natural evolution of late whiplash syndrome outside the medicolegal context

@article{Schrader1996NaturalEO,
  title={Natural evolution of late whiplash syndrome outside the medicolegal context},
  author={Harald Schrader and Gunnar Bovim and Trond Sand and Diana Obelieniene and D Siurkiene and Dalia Mickevi{\vc}ienė and Irena Misevi{\vc}ienė},
  journal={The Lancet},
  year={1996},
  volume={347},
  pages={1207-1211}
}

Pain after whiplash: a prospective controlled inception cohort study

TLDR
In a country were there is no preconceived notion of chronic pain arising from rear end collisions, and thus no fear of long term disability, and usually no involvement of the therapeutic community, insurance companies, or litigation, symptoms after an acute whiplash injury are self limiting, brief, and do not seem to evolve to the so-called late whiplASH syndrome.

Prevalence of temporomandibular disorders associated with whiplash injury in Lithuania.

Temporomandibular and Whiplash Injury in Lithuania

TLDR
Lithian accident victims do not appear to report chronic symptoms of TMD in association with an acute whiplash injury, and there was a low prevalence of jaw sounds, pain in or near the ear[s], jaw locking, tinnitus, and facial pain.

A prospective cohort study of the outcome of acute whiplash injury in Greece.

TLDR
In Greece, symptoms after an acute whiplash injury are self-limiting, brief, and do not appear to evolve into the so-called lateWhiplash syndrome.

Examination of the diagnostic validity of ‘headache attributed to whiplash injury’: a controlled, prospective study

TLDR
The nosologic validity of both acute and chronic whiplash headache is poor as the headaches, in accordance with the criteria lack distinguishing clinical features and have the same prognosis compared with headaches in a control group.

Late whiplash syndrome

Whiplash in individuals with known pre–accident, clinical neck status

TLDR
The number of cases is small, but the similarity of the symptoms—and signs—following whiplash injury may suggest an element of organic origin in thewhiplash syndrome.

Headache and musculoskeletal complaints among subjects with self reported whiplash injury. The HUNT-2 study

TLDR
Subjects with self reported whiplash injury had significantly more headache and musculoskeletal complaints than those without, and may in part be due to selective reporting.
...

References

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The late whiplash syndrome: A study of an illness in Australia and Singapore

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  • Medicine
    Culture, medicine and psychiatry
  • 1982
TLDR
The author suggests that the development of the Late Whiplash Syndrome depends on social variables and the differential distribution in Western countries and in Singapore is related to sanctions against entry into the sick role associated with this type of injury which are present in countries such as Singapore.

The late whiplash syndrome.

  • J. Balla
  • Medicine
    The Australian and New Zealand journal of surgery
  • 1980
TLDR
It is shown that social variables may be relevant n the production of the syndrome, consisting of headache, neckache, neck stiffness, and depression, as well as anxiety, all of which are strongly correlated with each other.

[Physician's statement concerning whiplash injuries. Significance of supplementary information].

TLDR
Investigation of some of the information provided by 27 patients who were submitted for assessment of medical invalidity after traffic accidents finds a previous history of neck pain was found in the health reports, but was not mentioned, and was partly denied, by the patients.

Whiplash injury and chronic neck pain.

  • S. Carette
  • Medicine
    The New England journal of medicine
  • 1994
Whiplash injuries occur in more than 1 million people in the United States every year1. Although the majority become asymptomatic in a matter of weeks to a few months, 20 to 40 percent have symptoms

Prevalence, determinants, and consequences of chronic neck pain in Finland.

TLDR
The distribution, determinants, and consequences of chronic neck pain have hitherto been described inadequately, and there was some independent association between neck syndrome and disabilities, use of physician services, and use of pain killers.

Injuries to the Cervical Spine

TLDR
During the years 1947-1957 the Accident Service of the Radcliffe Infirmary treated 26,287 patients with broken bones, and it seems that the cervical spine is either hyperflexed or hyperextended at the time of the accident, and the patients have been subdivided according to this criterion.

Headache and neck or shoulder pain--frequent and disabling complaints in the general population.

TLDR
Many people in the general population live with disabling complaints, but the numbers seeking medical care for them are far fewer, so it is important to demonstrate the high prevalence of headache and neck or shoulder pain, and also to understand the complexity of the causal factors.