Natural Pollution Caused by the Extremely Acid Crater Lake Kawah Ijen, East Java, Indonesia (7 pp)

  title={Natural Pollution Caused by the Extremely Acid Crater Lake Kawah Ijen, East Java, Indonesia (7 pp)},
  author={Ansje J L{\"o}hr and Thom A. Bogaard and Alex Heikens and Martin R. Hendriks and Sri Susilogati Sumarti and Manfred J. van Bergen and Kees C. A. M. van Gestel and Nico M. Straalen and Pieter Z. Vroon and Budi Widianarko},
  journal={Environmental Science and Pollution Research},
Background. Aims and Scope Lakes developing in volcano craters can become highly acidic through the influx of volcanic gases, yielding one of the chemically most extreme natural environments on earth. The Kawah Ijen crater lake in East Java (Indonesia) has a pH 〈 0.3. It is the source of the extremely acid and metal-polluted river Banyupahit (45 km). The lake has a significant impact on the river ecosystem as well as on a densely populated area downstream, where agricultural fields are… 

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