Native proteins are surface-molten solids: application of the Lindemann criterion for the solid versus liquid state.

  title={Native proteins are surface-molten solids: application of the Lindemann criterion for the solid versus liquid state.},
  author={Y Zhou and Dennis Vitkup and Martin Karplus},
  journal={Journal of molecular biology},
  volume={285 4},
Since the internal motions of proteins play an essential role in their biological function, it is important to characterize them in a fundamental way. The Lindemann criterion for the solid state is applied to molecular dynamics simulations and temperature-dependent X-ray diffraction data of proteins. It is found that the interior of native proteins is solid-like, while their surface is liquid-like. When the entire protein becomes solid-like at low temperature ( approximately 220 K), the protein… 

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