Native North American pine attenuates the competitive effects of a European invader on native grasses

Strong direct competitive interactions between two species can be attenuated or exacerbated by the asymmetric effects of other species. In this context we explored a natural pattern in which an exotic invader, Centaurea stoebe, was much less abundant under ponderosa pines than in open grassland. In a field experiment Centaurea had strong competitive effects… CONTINUE READING