Native North American pine attenuates the competitive effects of a European invader on native grasses

@article{Metlen2014NativeNA,
  title={Native North American pine attenuates the competitive effects of a European invader on native grasses},
  author={Kerry L. Metlen and Ragan Morrison Callaway},
  journal={Biological Invasions},
  year={2014},
  volume={17},
  pages={1227-1237}
}
Strong direct competitive interactions between two species can be attenuated or exacerbated by the asymmetric effects of other species. In this context we explored a natural pattern in which an exotic invader, Centaurea stoebe, was much less abundant under ponderosa pines than in open grassland. In a field experiment Centaurea had strong competitive effects… CONTINUE READING